Volume 13 - 2023
14. Phyto-pathogenic fungi associated with tropical fruit crops in Thailand – 1
Abeywickrama PD et al. (2023)
13. Phytopathogenic discomycetes, their economic impacts and control applications
Lestari AS et al. (2023)
12. Overview of the global research on dung-inhabiting fungi: trends, gaps, and biases
Calaça FJS et al. (2023)
11. Over the footprints of Italian mycology with emphasis on plant-associated Ascomycota
Wijesinghe SN et al. (2023)
10. The genus Lentinus in Thailand: taxonomy, cultivation tests, nutritional analysis and screening for the biological activity of wild strains
Sysouphanthong P et al. (2023)
7. Nutritional analysis of cultivated Pleurotus giganteus in agricultural waste as possible alternative substrates
Phonemany M, Thongklang N (2023)
Volume 9 - 2019 -
1. Diversity of sporulating rice endophytic fungi associated with Thai rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in Suphanburi and Chainat Provinces, Thailand
Authors: Su-Han NH, Songkumarn P, Nuankaew S, Boonyuen N, Piasai O
Recieved: 06 August 2018, Accepted: 29 November 2018, Published: 28 January 2019
During the last 10 years, studies on endophytic fungal diversity in various plant host varieties have been investigated increasingly. However, very little empirical research focused on the diversity of sporulating rice endophytic fungi (SREF) associated with Thai rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) has been performed. The aim of the present study is to explore the SREF associated with Pathumthani 1 and Rice Department 47 rice cultivars using the culture-dependent method from selected sublocations in the Suphanburi and Chinat Provinces of Thailand. Two hundred forty-two SREFs were preliminarily identified based on their morphological traits, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons validated 21 species in 17 genera. The four most frequently isolated SREF species were Nigrospora oryzae, Curvularia lunata, Daldinia eschscholtzii, and Exserohilum sp.3. The results suggest that SREF abundance, richness, distribution, and communities are predominantly influenced by different tissue segment types, rice cultivars, collection areas, and collection times. Our results also provide an insight into SREF diversity and contribute to our basic knowledge of the relationship between fungal diversity and host/location origin.
Keywords: fungal endophytes – occurrence frequency – species diversity
Authors: Lima AA, Gurgel RAF, Oliveira RL, Ferreira RJ, Barbosa MMB, Baseia IG
Recieved: 19 August 2018, Accepted: 10 January 2019, Published: 31 January 2019
Molecular studies have shown that Phallales constitutes a distinct clade within Phallomycetidae and morphologically comprises a wide variety of patterns of shapes and colors, producing expanded basidiomata, commonly known as stinkhorns, which may be free, latticed or sequestrate. Aiming to increase the knowledge of these fungi in the Brazilian semi-arid region, several fieldtrips were conducted in the rainy season of 2014 and 2018 in the Araripe National Forest, which covers an area of about 38,262 ha and is located in the State of Ceará. Several specimens were macro and micro morphologically described, and five species were identified. Laternea dringii is the second record outside of Mexico (locality type), Mutinus albotruncatus is the second record for science, Mutinus argentinus and Phallus indusiatus are the first records for the Brazilian semi-arid.
Keywords: Biodiversity – cage-fungi – gasteromycetes – stinkhorns – taxonomy
Authors: Alanbagi RA, Alshuwaili FE, Stephenson SL
Recieved: 07 December 2018, Accepted: 24 January 2019, Published: 31 January 2019
A diverse assemblage of fungi is associated with the litter layer found on the forest floor. Many of these are litter-decomposing fungi, which play a major role as functional decomposers, carbon sequesterers and nutrient immobilizers while also serving as both soil stabilizers and biological remediators. Each year, temperate deciduous forests such as those of northwest Arkansas produce a considerable amount of dead leaves and other types of plant detritus which accumulates on the forest floor. Although it has long been recognized that there is an assemblage of fungi associated with this microhabitat, few studies have been carried out to document the taxa present. The study reported herein represented the first effort of which we are aware to document the fungi associated with forest floor litter in northwest Arkansas. Specimens of fungi collected during the 2016 field season were identified through sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrDNA–ITS). A total of 127 taxa were recorded, the majority of which were clearly associated with dead leaves. Overall, saprophytes were the dominant ecological group, but the total assemblage also included some taxa with other biological roles (e.g., mycorrhizal fungi).
Keywords: Forest ecosystems – ITS ribosomal DNA region – litter decomposing fungi – taxonomy
Authors: Cortés-Pérez A, Desjardin DE, Perry BA, Ramírez-Cruz V, Ramírez-Guillén F, Villalobos-Arámbula AR
Recieved: 07 January 2019, Accepted: 21 February 2019, Published: 02 April 2019
Two new species of Mycena belonging to Section Longisetae are described from cloud forests of Veracruz State, Mexico, viz., Mycena glaesisetosa and M. punkissima. Sequences of nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 were generated for barcoding purposes and for comparisons with similar species. Comprehensive descriptions, line drawings of salient micromorphological features, and photographs of each species are provided.
Keywords: Agaricales – biodiversity – Mycenaceae – pileosetae – taxonomy – 2 new taxa
5. Hierarchically weighted principal component analysis evaluation of antifungal azoles inhibitory potency on lanosterol-14α-demethylase in Candida albicans
Authors: Sumalapao DEP, Gloriani NG
Recieved: 21 December 2018, Accepted: 26 March 2019, Published: 02 April 2019
Hierarchically weighted principal component analysis method was employed to assess the inhibitory potency of different antifungal azoles to Candida albicans lanosterol-14α-demethylase. Information regarding the molecular properties and biological activity of the antifungal azoles was utilized for evaluation. The molecular weight, complexity, heavy atom count, and rotatable count were identified as the most significant variables describing the inhibitory potency of the antifungal drugs. Newer generation drugs including itraconazole and fluconazole were identified to have better inhibitory potency than bifonazole and clotrimazole. The present study illustrated a method providing an effective approach in classifying antifungal azoles based on molecular properties and biological activity for possible synthesis of newer generation antifungal drugs for a better and more effective treatment of fungal infections.
Keywords: Antifungal azoles – Candida albicans – Cytochrome P450 enzyme system – Inhibitory potency – Itraconazole – Molecular complexity – Molecular weight – Rotatable count
6. Diversity of Zygomycetes associated with the rhizosphere of woody plants from Ile-Alatau national park (Kazakhstan)
Authors: Rakhimova YV, Kyzmetova LA, Assylbek AM, Yermekova BD
Recieved: 17 January 2019, Accepted: 04 April 2019, Published: 24 April 2019
Total 9 species of Zygomycetes belonging to six different genera, were identified from the rhizosphere of various woody plants in Ile-Alatau state national Natural Park. Mucor mucedo was observed as the most prevalent Zygomycete species. This species was isolated from the rhizosphere of apple, apricot, aspen, birch, oak, pine, poplar, spruce, rowan and willow. In addition to Mucor mucedo three additional species of the genus Mucor were noted: M. fuscus isolated from the rowan rhizosphere, M. silvaticus found in the apple rhizosphere, M. strictus was detected in the birch rhizosphere. Absidia spinosa, isolated from the rhizosphere of apple, apricot, hawthorn, inn, poplar, rowan, spruce and willow, was the next prevalent fungus in the studied rhizosphere samples. Only one species of Cunninghamella, C. echinulata, from hawthorn rhizosphere was detected. Actinomucor elegans was isolated also from the hawthorn rhizosphere. Piptocephalis arrhiza isolated from the apricot rhizosphere, grown together with species of the genus Mucor, as their parasite. Rhizopus stolonifer was isolated from the spruce rhizosphere.
Eight species of Zygomycetes are found in the rhizosphere of mixed forest trees, three species are found in the soil of spruce forests. Two species are common to mixed and spruce forests. The greatest number of soil fungi species is typical for mixed and small-leaved forest at the altitude range 1400–2000 m above sea level, much less of them in higher ranges. Absidia spinosa and Mucor mucedo are dominant for these altitudes. The number of soil Zygomycetes varies in the rhizosphere of different forest species. The greatest number of soil fungal species (3 species) is observed in the rhizosphere of apple, apricot, birch, hawthorn, rowan and spruce.
Keywords: columella – coniferous forest – fungal colony – merosporangium – mixed forest – occurrence frequency – small-leaved forest – sporangiospore – sporangium – zygospore
7. Nutrient contents and antioxidant properties of Pleurotus spp. cultivated on substrate fortified with Selenium
Authors: Fasoranti OF, Ogidi CO, Oyetayo VO
Recieved: 02 January 2019, Accepted: 12 April 2019, Published: 25 April 2019
This study investigated the proximate, mineral, amino acid and antioxidant properties of Pleurotus spp. fortified with selenium. The proximate analysis showed that Pleurotus mushrooms harvested from substrate fortified with selenium are rich in protein with values of 16.35 % and 18.21 for P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus, respectively. Low fat content of 0.39 to 0.40 % was obtained in all cultivated mushrooms. Calcium have the highest value of 20.94 mg/100g in fortified Pleurotus ostreatus. Essential and non- essential amino acids were present in cultivated Pleurotus spp. with the highest values of glutamic acid ranged from 10.61 to 12.27 mg/100 g. Ethanolic extract from selenium fortified Pleurotus spp. exhibited higher and better antioxidant effect (91.58 %) when compared (p<0.05) to the non-selenium fortified Pleurotus spp. (75.5 %). Selenium-biofortification of Pleurotus spp. resulted in a considerable increase of its antioxidant properties. Therefore, selenium enriched Pleurotus species could serve as a rich source of natural antioxidant food for the enhancement of the body against oxidative damage.
Keywords: Edible mushroom –amino acids – free radicals – mineral-enrichment – nutraceuticals
Authors: Abdel-Azeem AM, Nafady NA
Recieved: 10 January 2019, Accepted: 25 April 2019, Published: 07 May 2019
During an extensive survey of macrobasidiomycota and the effects of climate changes on their distribution supported by Alexandria Research Center for Adaptation (ARCA) in Egypt and Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund (MBZ), several specimens collected, examined and preserved. As a result, two species of Tomophagus colossus (Fr.) Murrill (Basidiomycota, Ganodermataceae) and Battarrea phalloides (Dicks.) Pers. (Basidiomycota, Agaricaceae) were identified and recorded as new records. Both taxa were identified phenotypically and were subjected to sequencing for confirmation. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1–5.8 s – ITS2 rDNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number MH796120 and MH796121 in the NCBI Database respectively. We provide an updated full description and illustration of both species.
Keywords: Agaricaceae – ARCA – Basidiomycota – Ganodermataceae – Ismailia – MBZ – Nile delta
Authors: Bal T, Raj J, Richter DL
Recieved: 31 January 2019, Accepted: 09 May 2019, Published: 11 June 2019
An aqueous suspension made with ground sterile sclerotium of the fungus Inonotus obliquus, commonly called chaga, was used as a pressure treatment to pine and birch wood blocks. Pine blocks were exposed to three brown rot fungi and birch blocks were exposed to three white rot fungi using a standard soil block decay test. In most cases chaga treatment significantly stimulated decay of wood blocks (measured as percent weight loss) compared to untreated blocks. This was mainly true for white rot fungi, however chaga-treated blocks also significantly inhibited decay by two brown rot fungi. Different metabolic or nutritional needs of decay fungi may explain why the chaga treatment had varying effects. Although many biologically active natural compounds isolated from I. obliquus have been studied, this report marks the first to our knowledge regarding potential antifungal properties in wood decay tests.
Keywords: antifungal – betulin – soil block test – wood preservatives – natural products
10. Molecular identification and in vitro propagation of arbuscular mycorrhiza from tea plant rhizosphere
Authors: Arofatullah NA, Kabirun S, Fujiyama K, Widianto D
Recieved: 23 April 2019, Accepted: 01 July 2019, Published: 02 July 2019
The purpose of this research was to identify arbuscular mycorrhiza spores colonizing the rhizosphere of tea plants and attempt to propagate those spores in vitro. Soil samples from the tea plant rhizosphere were sieved, and arbuscular mycorrhizal spores were isolated and identified based on a morphological and molecular approach. Five species of arbuscular mycorrhiza were identified: Acaulospora mellea, Acaulospora spinosa, Glomus ambisporum, Glomus multicaule, and Scutellospora cerradensis. Eleven arbuscular mycorrhizal sequences were obtained, the phylogenetic analysis grouped the 11 sequences into five clades, belonging to the Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae, and Glomeraceae genera. Among the five species identified in this study, only two were able to germinate during co-cultivation with an Arabidopsis root organ culture host. Scutellospora cerradensis and Glomus clarum germinated after three and seven days of incubation, respectively. However, the germ tube did not develop any further and was thus unable to infect the Arabidopsis root. Nevertheless, these results provided an overview of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species colonizing the tea rhizosphere as well as challenges for arbuscular mycorrhiza in vitro propagation using Arabidopsis root culture.
Keywords: axenic culture – Glomeromycota – nested PCR – root organ culture – single spore sequencing – SSU rDNA
11. Morchella tridentina (Ascomycota) from southwestern Turkey based on morphological and molecular evidences
Authors: Kaygusuz O, Çolak ÖF, Türkekul İ
Recieved: 07 May 2019, Accepted: 22 July 2019, Published: 23 July 2019
Morchella is a species-rich genus in the family Morchellaceae, but phenotypic variations among species and subgeneric groupings are poorly understood. New collections of Morchella tridentina, a taxon with a problematic taxonomic history, are reported from Denizli province in southwestern Turkey based on morphology and molecular phylogeny. This is a new locality record for the Turkish mycobiota. Description of the morphological characteristics, including macro- and microphotographs are provided. Additionally, phylogenetic data, using the nrITS locus, and infrageneric relationships of M. tridentina within the Distantes section are given. Analyses of the nrITS showed that the lowest sequence divergence among in-group taxa was observed between M. angusticeps and M. eximioides, 0.002% (SE = 0.001). The highest sequence divergence with in-group taxa was found between M. tomentosa and M. semilibera, 0.956% (SE = 0.167), and between M. semilibera and M. tridentina, 0.866% (SE = 0.147). Finally, it was determined that M. exuberans was genetically the closest species to M. tridentina, 0.398% (SE = 0.054).
Keywords: genetic distance – morel – nrITS – phylogeny – taxonomy – Turkish mycobiota
Authors: Kamble SK, Patil BJ
Recieved: 25 February 2019, Accepted: 11 July 2019, Published: 31 July 2019
An attempt has been taken to control groundnut rust caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. using foliar spray applications of plant extracts under field condition. A new formulation, ‘Panchaparni extract’, was developed using extracts of leaves from Eupatorium odoratum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Vitex nigundo L. and Datura metel L. to control rust disease of groundnut. The Panchaparni extract was observed to be most effective than all other plant treatments and control (distilled water spray) which reduced the percent disease index and increased the efficiency of percent disease control.
Keywords: botanicals– Foliar spray – disease
13. Host range, geographical distribution and current accepted names of cercosporoid and ramularioid species in Iran
Authors: Pirnia M
Recieved: 14 May 2019, Accepted: 22 July 2019, Published: 31 July 2019
Comprehensive up to date information of cercosporoid and ramularioid species of Iran is given with their hosts, geographical distribution and references. A total of 186 taxa belonging to 24 genara are listed. Among them, 134 taxa were belonged to 16 Cercospora and Cercospora-like genera viz. Cercospora (62 species), Cercosporidium (1 species), Clypeosphaerella (1 species), Fulvia (1 species), Graminopassalora (1 species), Neocercospora (1 species), Neocercosporidium (1 species), Nothopassalora (1 species), Paracercosporidium (1 species), Passalora (21 species), Pseudocercospora (36 species), Rosisphaerella (1 species), Scolecostigmina (2 species), Sirosporium (2 species), Sultanimyces (1 species) and Zasmidium (1 species); and 52 taxa were belonged to 8 Ramularia and Ramularia-like genera viz. Cercosporella (2 species), Microcyclosporella (1 species), Neoovularia (2 species), Neopseudocercosporella (1 species), Neoramularia (2 species), Ramularia (42 species), Ramulariopsis (1 species) and Ramulispora
Keywords: anamorphic fungi – biodiversity – Cercospora-like genera – Ramularia-like genera – west of Asia
14. In vitro antagonistic activity of Argentinean isolates of Purpureocillium lilacinum on Nacobbus aberrans eggs
Authors: Gortari MC, Hours RA
Recieved: 18 February 2019, Accepted: 27 August 2019, Published: 01 August 2019
In vitro interaction of three Argentinean isolates of Purpureocillium lilacinum (one isolated from a public park and two from agricultural soils) towards Nacobbus aberrans eggs was studied. After seven incubation days, the three isolates showed reproductive fungal structures fully developed whereas 80 to 100 % of the eggs were infected. No significant differences among the three isolates were observed in fungal activity with respect to hatching and parasitism under the assayed test conditions (p>0.05). The hatching percentage in control plates increased during the evaluation period of the cultures, with no signs of fungal infection, showing significant differences as compared to the plates infected (p<0.05). Although the three isolates studied could be considered as potential agents for biological control of root-knot nematodes, it is necessary to further study some aspects in a wide range of experimental conditions in the laboratory, greenhouse and field so as to determine their real efficiency.
Keywords: egg parasitism – nematophagous fungi – root-knot nematodes – tomato
Authors: Souza SC, Pereira VM, Moreira SI, Guimarães SSC, Moreira GM, Mendes WO, Nery EM, Alves E, Chalfoun SM, Moreira FMS, Batista LR
Recieved: 24 August 2018, Accepted: 15 August 2019, Published: 20 August 2019
Phenotypic characters and phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, β-tubulin (BenA) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) gene sequences were applied to identify Aspergillus trisporus, a third member of the Aspergillus Jani section isolated from soil in the Ferriferous Quadrangle, Brazil. This new species has, as morphological markers, stipes of white conidiophores markedly smaller than the other species of the section and slow growth in all culture media evaluated. A. trisporus is phylogenetically and phenotypically more related to A. brevijanus, but it can be differentiated by non-growth at 37 °C and by the shorter stipes of the white conidiophores and predominantly clavated vesicles. This report contributes to the knowledge of Brazilian soils’ fungal diversity, especially in poorly explored habitats such as the Ferriferous Quadrangle.
Keywords: 1 new species – multilocus phylogeny – soil-borne fungi – taxonomy
Authors: Sumalapao DEP, Alegre FMD, Salazar PBD, Villarante NR, Gonzaga AC, Gloriani NG
Recieved: 27 March 2019, Accepted: 07 September 2019, Published: 18 September 2019
The prevalent use of indwelling medical devices has almost paralleled the increasing frequency of fungal infections commonly found in clinical practice. The present study examined Candida albicans biofilms on the surfaces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) endotracheal tube, silicone urinary catheter, and silicone nasogastric tube. The viable C. albicans in biofilms was quantified using standard plating procedure. Several kinetic rate equations were employed to describe the survival profile of the viable population. Candida albicans exhibited remarkably heterogeneous growth patterns on the different medical devices reflecting variations on its adhesion potential and biofilm formation. A significant difference in the viability of C. albicans in biofilms on the surfaces of the medical devices was observed among monitoring points. Survival profile of C. albicans in biofilms followed a second-order kinetic model. Quantitative descriptions regarding growth patterns and kinetic profile of the fungus were obtained on these model biofilms. These findings can provide additional information to better understand the complex biology of C. albicans and to possibly explain the resistance patterns of fungal biofilms with the existing available antifungal drugs.
Keywords: Fungal infections – Medical Devices – Polyvinyl chloride polymer – Silicone polymer – Survival analysis
17. Biological features of Sparassis laminosa Fr. (Sparassidaceae, Polyporales) and the main aspects of its reproduction in the territory of Hutsulshchyna National Natural Park, Ukraine
Authors: Pasailiuk M, Sukhomlyn M, Gryganskyi A
Recieved: 12 March 2019, Accepted: 05 October 2019, Published: 18 October 2019
Sparassis laminosa Fr. is a valuable edible fungus and is protected in many countries, including Ukraine. The study of this fungus in the laboratory and its reproduction under natural conditions are research priorities to preserve this species. We studied the culture growth S. laminosa strain 2211 on nutrient agar media and different plant substrates. Grain-containing substrates were optimal for mycelial growth, the colonization of which occurred from days 10-20 of the experiment. S. laminosa strain 2211 can be grown in the natural environment using the re-situ technique. However, fruit bodies were observed in only one location (near Quercus robur in a sunny area of a temperate deciduous forest, territory of the village Verbovets) at four months after inoculation of the composite substrate containing wheat grain: coniferous sawdust: sunflower seed shells: wheat straw at a ratio of 67%:17%:8%:8%. The obtained fruit bodies were typical of the species morphology, but they had a considerably smaller size. In addition, only substrates that were completely colonized with mycelium were suitable for the application of S. laminosa in nature. The use of partially colonized substrates was accompanied by contamination and growth of Schizophyllum commune fruit bodies. Monitoring of the periodicity of the fruiting within the fixed locality and the effectiveness of all 15 the substrates used in experiment for the fruiting of S. laminosae strain 2211, will be conducted in future studies.
Keywords: fruiting body – mycelial growth – plant substrate – re-situ
Authors: Saxena A, Gupta S
Recieved: 17 August 2019, Accepted: 06 October 2019, Published: 21 October 2019
Fungal preservation is of utmost importance both with respect to commercial as well as research purpose; however its long term maintenance is troublesome. Frequent sub-culturing and re-stocking of the preserved culture often result in mutations. Most preservation techniques like cryopreservation, lyophilisation and silica gel are widely used but are researcher unfriendly for regular recovery and longstanding research. In this study different fungal species were preserved using the slant method, stab method and glycerol-slice method to elucidate the most effective technique feasible for both regular use and long term fugal preservation. Dataset revealed that stoage in glycerol-slice method lasts longer than the other methods and is recommended for laboratories where specialized conservation facilities are unavailable.
Keywords: Cryopreservation – culture maintenance – fungal slants – fungal stabs – glycerol slice
Authors: Ayed F, Jabnoun-Khiareddine H, Aydi Ben Abdallah R, Daami-Remadi M
Recieved: 14 July 2019, Accepted: 24 October 2019, Published: 12 November 2019
Water availability is an important constraint with significant influence on fungal growth. With regards to soil systems, the osmotic potential is the most important factor that determined the water flow and availability for physiological processes. In this study, the effect of osmotic potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production and germination of Tunisian isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii was studied on culture media osmotically adjusted with potassium chloride from -0.1 MPa to -5.0 MPa. Radial growth and fungal biomass were optimum at osmotic potentials ranging from -0.1 to -1.9 MPa depending on isolates used. Sclerotial initiation started on the 6th day of incubation at -0.1 MPa for all tested isolates and was observed after 9–12 days of incubation at the range of -1.1 to -5.0 MPa. Sclerotia became whitish after 15–18 days of incubation and dark brown after 18–21 days; but no sclerotia were produced at -3.9 and -5 MPa for all isolates. After 21 days, optimal sclerotial production and dry weight (the weight of 100 sclerotia) were recorded at -0.1 and -1.1 MPa. The optimum osmotic potential range for sclerotial germination varied between -0.1 and -1.9 MPa depending on isolates tested and reached 100% after 48 hrs. The decrease of osmotic potential led to lowered sclerotial germination where the lowest germination occurred at -3.9 MPa and -5.0 MPa. Thus, the current investigation demonstrated that the osmotic potential is a key limiting factor for S. rolfsii growth and survival.
Keywords: Germination – mycelial growth – sclerotial production – southern blight – water potential
Authors: Sureshkumar S, Chitrakani B, Rajapriya P, Pandi M
Recieved: 25 July 2019, Accepted: 27 October 2019, Published: 15 November 2019
Fungal endophytes are a diverse group of microorganisms, heterotrophic in nature and associated with all types of healthy plants. All plant species have one or more fungal endophytes, of some associations providing potential advantage for both the host as well as fungi. The objective of the study was to isolate and characterize the fungal endophytes from Ficus racemosa. A total 150 leaf segments were screened for fungal isolation, from which 88 fungal colonies were recovered and 30 different morphotypes were identified based on the phenotypic appearance. Further, the thirty morphotypes were characterized by molecular methods using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and ITS2 sequence-secondary structures based analysis. Minimum Free Energy (MFE) method was followed to elucidate the secondary structure. The tools Mfold 3.1 (Structure modelled), 4SALE 1.7 (Alignment) and ProfDistS 0.9.9 (Tree construction) were utilized for the structural and phylogenetic analysis. On the basis of morphology and molecular analysis, all 30 morphotypes were classified into 18 different species, 10 genera and 7 orders (Botryosphaeriales, Capnodiales, Diaporthales, Glomerellales, Hypocreales, Pleosphorales and Xylariales) of Ascomycota. The utilization of ITS2 secondary structure information improved the accuracy and robustness of phylogenetic analysis for species level characterization.
Keywords: Endophytic fungi – ITS region – ITS2 secondary structure – 4SALE – phylogenetic analysis
21. New record of Russula juniperina (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota) from Turkey evidenced by morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis
Authors: Çolak ÖF, Kaygusuz O
Recieved: 07 May 2019, Accepted: 21 November 2019, Published: 29 November 2019
Russula is one of the most speciose genera among the agarics, but phylogenetic relationships among species and subgeneric groupings are poorly understood. Among them Russula juniperina is reported for the first time from Turkey based on morphology and molecular phylogeny. Comprehensive description of the morphological characters, macro and microphotographs of this poorly known species are provided, and comparison with phenetically similar and phylogenetically related species are discussed. The pileipellis structure in this species indicates its placement within the cuprea/juniperina clade of sect. Russula subsect. Maculatina. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that R. juniperina is phylogenetically closely related to, but distinct from R. adulterina and R. cuprea based on the ITS dataset. The lowest sequence divergence among in-group taxa was observed between R. juniperina and R. adulterina 0.006%, the next was between R. juniperina and R. cuprea 0.015%. The highest sequence divergence with in-group taxa was found between R. badia and R. font-queri, 0.134%. Thus, it was determined that genetically, R. juniperina was closer to R. adulterina than to R. cuprea.
Keywords: new record – phylogeny – rare species – taxonomy – Turkish mycobiota
22. Myristica fragrans extract inhibits melanin biosynthesis, hyphal growth and appressorium formation in Magnaporthe oryzae
Authors: Gupta L, Saikia CM, Sharma A, Ahluwalia SK, Vermani M, Konwar D, Vijayaraghavan P
Recieved: 09 August 2019, Accepted: 08 November 2019, Published: 16 December 2019
Magnaporthe oryzae, causes rice blast disease, affecting 30% of annual rice production globally. It produces specialized infection structures called appressoria, allowing the pathogen to penetrate the underlying tissue. A dense layer of melanin in the appressorium wall generates turgor pressure to form invasive hyphae. Myristica fragrans has potent antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to explore the effect of M. fragrans extract on inhibition of melanin biosynthesis, hyphal growth and appressorium formation in M. oryzae. The results demonstrated that minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC100 and MIC50) of M. fragrans n-hexane extract (PE-01) were 0.625 mg/mL and 0.312 mg/mL, respectively. Melanin biosynthesis was reduced up to 66.66% at 0.312 mg/mL concentration. Microscopic analysis revealed distorted conidia with no appressorium formation. qRT-PCR showed four-fold upregulation of alb1/pksP gene in presence of PE-01 extract as compared to control which may be due to generation of stress. PE-01 treated rice seeds showed 85% suppression of rice blast and 40% enhancement of plant growth. Thus, M. fragrans extract has the potential to be developed as a biopesticide against M. oryzae infections in rice.
Keywords: DHN-melanin inhibition – biopesticide – rice blast – SEM – tricyclazole
Authors: Fedorenko VA
Recieved: 07 February 2019, Accepted: 18 December 2019, Published: 20 December 2019
Information on 87 species of macrofungi new to the Republic of Kazakhstan, identified as a result of field researches from 2009 to 2018, is given. Identification of species was based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics of basidiomes using literature for morphological identification, standard reagents and techniques.
Keywords: Ile Alatau – Altay – Akkol – Burabay – mushroom – funga
24. Enumeration of thraustochytrids in decomposing leaves of mangroves as influenced by physicochemical and microbial factors
Authors: Kalidasan K, Phusit H, Kathiresan K
Recieved: 05 June 2019, Accepted: 19 December 2019, Published: 26 December 2019
This study enumerated thraustochytrids in the decomposing leaves of mangroves in relation to physico-chemical and microbial aspects. Senescent leaves of four mangrove species viz., Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Avicennia marina and A. officinalis, were allowed to decompose in litter bag along the intertidal zone of the Vellar estuary in south-east coast of India. The leaf samples were drawn at different days of decomposition (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42) for four seasons: pre-monsoon (July-September, 2017), monsoon (October-December, 2017), post-monsoon (January-March, 2018), and summer (April-June, 2018). The samples were studied for thraustochytrids and eight other microbial groups as well analysed for physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, redox potential, N, P, and K of leaf samples). Thraustochytrids count was higher in Avicennia marina (0.16×103 CFU.g-1) than that in Rhizophora apiculata (0.12×103 CFU.g-1). The count was maximum (0.21×103 CFU.g-1) on day 21 of decomposition. The count varied with seasons, and it was higher (0.15 ×103 CFU.g-1) in monsoon than that (0.13 ×103 CFU.g-1) in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon. Thraustochytrids count exhibited a high positive correlation (p< 0.01) with other microbial groups such as total heterotrophic bacteria, lactobacilli, yeasts, actinobacteria, azotobacter, fungi and Trichoderma, but a negative correlation with cyanobacteria. The count also showed positive correlations with pH and redox potential of decomposing water, leaf N and P. Thus, the thraustochytrids in association with other saprophytic microbes are involved in the decomposition of leaf litter, making the mangrove habitat productive.
Keywords: Avicennia – Decomposing leaf litter – Mangroves – Rhizophora – Thraustochytrids
25. Xylanase-production potential of Trichoderma Asperellum NG-T161 and NG-T163 isolated from banana farm soils in South Western Nigeria
Authors: Akinyele HA, Gabriel-Ajobiewe AR, Ukhureigbe OM, Adebesin AA, Omotayo TL
Recieved: 16 October 2019, Accepted: 19 December 2019, Published: 26 December 2019
The detrimental effect associated with the use of chemicals in industries and wastes treatment of lignocellulosic origin has led to an increase in the demand for xylanase. Hence, there is need for continuous search for more microorganisms with ability to produce this important enzyme. This work is aimed at producing and assaying xylanase using stains of Trichoderma asperellum which is abundant in banana soil. Species of Trichoderma asperellum (NG-T163) and (NG-T161) isolated from banana soil in Ede and Gbogan were screened for production of xylanase. The influence of xylan concentrations, carbon and nitrogen sources and pH were evaluated with respect to xylanase production. Production of the enzyme, using lignocellulosic materials by the fungi, was also investigated. The enzyme was partially purified and applied to degrade agro-industrial wastes. The highest xylanase production was obtained on yeast extract having activity of 1.5 mg/mL. Enzyme activity was highest at 2% xylan with 3.53 mg/mL for NG-T163. Lactose and sucrose were the best carbon sources for the induction of the enzyme. Optimum xylanase production was observed at a pH of 5.0 for NG-T161and 6.0 for NG-T163. Lignocellulosic wastes induced production of xylanase; the highest enzyme activity (4.0 mg/mL) was obtained with purified xylanase in the presence of banana peels by the two isolates. It can therefore be deduced that Trichoderma asperellum (NG-T163 and NG-T161) have the ability to produce good quantum of xylanase and good prospectus source of xylanase for industrial use and in the treatment of plant wastes.
Keywords: Bagasse – Enzyme – Lactose – Microorganisms – Wastes
26. The myxobiota of the Serra de Caldas Novas State Park (PESCAN), Goiás, Brazil, with new records for the Central-West region and the Cerrado biome (Brazilian Savanna)
Authors: Moreira IC, Leonardo-Silva L, Xavier-Santos S
Recieved: 13 September 2019, Accepted: 06 November 2019, Published: 27 December 2019
A myxomycetes species inventory was carried out in the Serra de Caldas Novas State Park (PESCAN), Goiás, Brazil to increase the knowledge of the myxobiota of the Central-West region and the Cerrado biome (brazilian Savanna), including ecological aspects. We found 18 species, distributed into nine genera and seven families. Among these occurrences, four are new records for the Cerrado, nine for the Central-West region and all are new for the state of Goiás. Of the species found, 56% were classified as occasional. The richness and diversity estimated for the area, according to Shanonn (H’ 2.6), Chao1 (22.1) and Jack1 (22.9) indices, showed that this environment act as an important refuge for the development of myxomycetes, with high taxonomic diversity (S/G 2.2). Thus, the results reinforce the importance of the park as a conservation unit of myxobiota.
Keywords: Biodiversity – Geographic distribution – Myxomycetes – New occurrences
27. Macrofungal biodiversity in the western ghat foot hill semi-urban city of Manipal and forest terrains of Koodlu Theertha falls, Karnataka
Authors: Prakash PY, Colney Z
Recieved: 07 August 2019, Accepted: 19 December 2019, Published: 31 December 2019
Fungi plays an important role for a sustainable ecology. This study was carried out to document the niche macrofungal diversity and distribution in the western ghat foot hill semi-urban city of Manipal and the forest region near Koodlu Theertha Falls, Udupi Dist., Karnataka. Generic diversity was observed among 30 sporocarp forage sampling during the period August - September 2015. Out of these, maximum ten genera were assignable to family Polyporaceae, three genera to Clavariaceae, two genera to Ganodermataceae, Marasiaceae respectively and one genus to Cantharellaceae. Rest of the families were denoted by single genus only. Out of 30 mushrooms 10 were identified upto species level by Morphing Mushroom Identifier (MMI) and MycoKey version 4.1 innovative identification tool. The ecological preference revealed that maximum was saprophyte, living on dead substrates or decaying wood debris, few were found associated with roots of higher angiospermic trees while only one were found parasitic. The Simpson diversity and Shannon biodiversity index were calculated and documented for both Manipal (0.95 and 2.204) and Koodlu Theeratha falls (0.85 and 1.874). Species richness was higher in the post monsoon seasons than in the early dry seasons and tended to decrease with increasing altitude. The present study is first of its kind to document the macro fungal biodiversity in the pristine forest area near Koodlu Theertha falls and the growing semi-urban city of Manipal.
Keywords: ecology – species abundance – mushrooms – diversity