Volume 8 - 2018 - Issue 6


1. Susceptibility kinetic profile of Candida albicans biofilm on latex silicone surfaces with antifungal azoles

Authors: Sumalapao DEP, Rippey C, Atienza HBP, Cabrera EC, Flores MJC, Amalin DM, Altura MT, and Gloriani NG

Recieved: 14 June 2018, Accepted: 11 November 2018, Published: 14 November 2018

The present study examined the susceptibility profile of Candida albicans biofilm on latex silicone surfaces to antifungal azoles. Biofilms formed by C. albicans on latex silicone surfaces behaved in accordance with a second-order rate kinetic model. Nonadherent nonbiofilm C. albicans cells were initially susceptible to posaconazole, fluconazole, miconazole, and voriconazole. Biofilms formed by C. albicans on latex silicone surfaces remained susceptible to fluconazole, miconazole, and voriconazole, although a significant reduction in the zone of inhibition diameter was noted at 48-hour to 72-hour biofilm formation. The susceptibility kinetic profile of the fungal biofilm with posaconazole and voriconazole can be described using the zero-order rate kinetic model. Information obtained on these model biofilms with emphasis on susceptibility kinetic profile can possibly explain resistance of antifungal drugs and subsequent development of novel therapies for biofilm-based diseases.

Keywords: Candida albicans – Fluconazole – Fungal biofilm – Kinetic equations – Miconazole – Posaconazole – Susceptibility profile – Voriconazole

 

2. Curvularia shahidchamranensis sp. nov., a crude oil-tolerant fungus

Authors: Dehdari F, Mehrabi-Koushki M, Hayati J

Recieved: 06 August 2018, Accepted: 21 November 2018, Published: 23 November 2018

Curvularia shahidchamranensis is newly described and illustrated from crude oil contaminated soils of Ahvaz in the Khuzestan province of Iran. This new species is supported with a phylogenetic analysis based on ITS and gpd regions in combination with morphology. In two-locus based tree, the isolates of Curvularia shahidchamranensis were distinguished from the other previously known species of Curvularia, except the C. nicotiae. Morphologically, this species easily distinguished from C. nicotiae in having less septate and narrower conidia with diamond-like cellular chambers and slightly flatted end in apex. In an in vitro test, both isolates showed 18.2%, 21.2% and 24.5% growth inhibition at the concentration of 30, 40 and 50 percent of the crude oil, respectively.

Keywords: Ahvaz – Marun oil field – New fungal species

 

3. Gasteroid fungi (Basidiomycota) from two protected natural areas in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

Authors: Lima AA, Baseia IG

Recieved: 25 June 2018, Accepted: 28 September 2018, Published: 14 December 2018

In this study, a total of 13 species of gasteroid fungi belonging to six genera in five families collected from ‘Área de Proteção Ambiental Piquiri-Una’ and the ‘Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa’ are discussed, described and illustrated. Clathrus columnatus and Geastrum pusillipilosum are reported for the first time from Rio Grande do Norte State. In addition, a checklist of gasteroid fungi of Rio Grande do Norte is provided. A total of 50 species belonging to 18 genera are reported from Rio Grande do Norte State.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes – Atlantic rainforest – Biodiversity – gasteromycetes – taxonomy

 

4. A preliminary study on domestication of wild-growing medicinal mushrooms collected from Northern Iran

Authors: Shahtahmasebi SH, Pourianfar HR, Mahdizadeh V, Shahzadeh Fazeli SA, Amoozegar MA, Nasr SH, Zabihi SS, Rezaeian SH, Malekzadeh KH, Janpoor J

Recieved: 31 July 2018, Accepted: 11 December 2018, Published: 19 December 2018

Domestication of wild mushrooms and preserving their mycelia alive is essential to ensure reproducibility of biomedical research and breeding programs. This study was conducted with the aim of domestication of wild-growing mushrooms collected from the northern Iran (Mazandaran province) where is known to be rich in valuable higher fungal reserves. Totally, 40 well-identified wild isolates belonging to Basidiomycota (comprised of 21 different genera) was evaluated in solid media (potato dextrose agar and compost extract agar), spawn (grain- and wood-based spawn), and lignocellulosic substrate (wood chips-based substrate supplemented with 15% wheat bran). Significant differences were found between the isolates and between the media in terms of mycelial growth (p < 0.05). While more than half of the isolates showed a growth rate higher than 3 mm per day, few isolates exhibited a growth rate of less than one mm per day in both media. Besides, two isolates failed to grow in grain-based or wood-based spawn, while most of them colonized wheat grains shorter than wood chips (p < 0.05). The fruiting tests showed that eight isolates were able to produce fruiting bodies in the substrate, including: Pholiota aurivella (GPS 142), Lenzites tricolor (GPS 180), Ganoderma tsugae (GPS 186), Cyclocybe sp. (Darabkola 20), Trametes sp. (GPS 130), Trametes sp. (Darabkola 13), Daedaleopsis sp. (Royan 8), and Donkia pulcherrima (Neka 24D). Based on the literature survey, most of these isolates possess antimicrobial and anticancer properties. Therefore, adaptation of these wild species to produce fruiting bodies may facilitate further research on their biological activities.

Keywords: Adaptation – Basidiomycota – Fruiting bodies – Mycelial growth – Wild mushrooms

 

About CREAM Journal

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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