Volume 8 - 2018 - Issue 4


1. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Quercus alba in northwest Arkansas

Authors: Ben Hassine Ben Ali M, Nelsen DJ, Garrett Kluthe B, Collins T, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 04 April 2018, Accepted: 24 July 2018, Published: 05 July 2018

Species of oak (Quercus spp.) have considerable ecological and economic importance in the forests of northwest Arkansas, and their growth and survival ultimately depend upon the mutualistic associations they establish with a variety of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the soil. The species diversity of these fungi is known to be quite high in oak forests, but no previous study has examined the assemblages of fungi associated with white oak in the forests of northwest Arkansas. The study reported herein included a below-ground approach to assess fungal communities, making use of molecular identification of ectomycorrhizal root-tips through sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA region. DNA extracted from root-tips collected from five different white oak trees yielded sequences of at least 32 taxa. Ectomycorrhizal taxa associated with white oak in the general study area appear to be dominated by members of the Basidiomycota. The most common ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with white oak roots belong to the genus Russula, including seven taxa identified to the species level and three to the genus level. 

Keywords: Basidiomycota – ectomycorrhizae – ITS ribosomal DNA region – roots

 

2. Estimation of total phenolic, flavonoid contents and free radical scavenging activity of a wild macrofungus, Lenzites quercina (L.) P. Karsten

Authors: Ogidi CO, Oyetayo VO, Akinyele BJ

Recieved: 26 January 2018, Accepted: 25 June 2018, Published: 10 July 2018

Extracts obtained from raw and fermented Lenzites quercina were assessed for total phenol, flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties. The scavenging ability of Lenzites quercina extracts was tested against free radicals namely; 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH-), nitric oxide (NO) and iron (Fe2+). Ethyl acetate extract from fermented Lenzites quercina (FEA) possessed higher phenolic content of 67.6 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g extract, while an extract of ethyl acetate from raw Lenzites quercina (REA) have the highest flavonoid of 51.4 mg Quercetin Equivalent (QE)/g extract. Antioxidant property measured by FeCl3 reducing power was within 18.1 to 127.6 mg Ascorbic Acid Equivalent (AAE)/g extract for the extracts obtained from the raw and fermented Lenzites quercina. The scavenging properties of FEA were well pronounced against nitric oxide and ferrous ion radicals. FEA also exhibited better inhibition on thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) with highest inhibitory effect of 109.3%. Some of the extracts displayed inhibition concentration (IC50) that are lower than the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results from this study suggest that the high total phenol and flavonoid found in Lenzites quercina extracts could make it serve as a good antioxidant agent; this may be exploited as an alternative therapy in health care delivery.

Keywords: antioxidants – fermentation – medicinal mushroom – nutraceuticals

 

3. New records of lichenized fungi in the family Trypetheliaceae from Andaman Islands, India

Authors: Niranjan M, Sarma VV

Recieved: 04 April 2018, Accepted: 07 July 2018, Published: 16 July 2018

Trypetheliaceae is a family of lichenized fungi in the phylum Ascomycota and it comprises seventeen genera with most of the species being found in neotropical regions in addition to countries in the Paleotropics such as India. Recent exploration of filamentous ascomycetous fungi from Andaman Islands, India, revealed two new records of lichenized fungi in the family Trypetheliaceae. These are Marcelaria benguelensis new to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Viridothelium solomonense new to India. These fungi are illustrated with photomicrographs and are compared with closely related species in this paper.

 

Keywords: 2 new records – Dothideomycetes – Taxonomy – Trypetheliaceae

 

4. Windows of opportunity: fruiting phenology and size of mushrooms

Authors: Halbwachs H

Recieved: 22 May 2018, Accepted: 31 May 2018, Published: 18 July 2018

The phenology of Agaricomycete fruiting is largely genetically determined, but modulated by climate and annual weather patterns. Thus, dispersal, and finally reproduction, are species-specifically optimised. Mean fruit body mass is another species-specific trait. Mean fruiting time should affect mycelial size in the sense that the mycelium of late fruiters had more time to grow than the one of early fruiters. Mycelial size is assumed to be correlated with fruit body size. I, therefore, suspected that late fruiters would have larger fruit bodies. For clarification, I extracted phenology and fruit body data from Funga Nordica and other Fungas and subjected them to statistical analyses (linear models, t-tests and ANOVA). In addition, I explored the potential relationship between ectomycorrhizal exploration types and mean fruit body size. The results show a general, significant trend for late fruiters to have larger fruit bodies. Exploration types are correlated with fruit body size, though not connected to phenology. In future studies, the probably intricate causal factors for the correlations found need to be disentangled.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes – fruiting – fruit body biomass – ectomycorrhizal – saprobic – exploration types

 

5. Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with the roots of planted Eucalyptus grandis in northeastern Brazil

Authors: Coelho IL, Nelsen DJ, Ben Hassine Ben Ali M, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 13 April 2018, Accepted: 06 August 2018, Published: 29 August 2018

Eucalyptus, like other members of the family Myrtaceae, form symbiotic associations with various ectomycorrhizal fungi. The purpose of this study was to assess the ectomycorrhizal taxa associated with Eucalyptus plantations in the municipalities of Gloria do Goita and Moreno, Pernambuco, Brazil. Root-tip samples were collected from Eucalyptus grandis trees to identify the ectomycorrhizal and other root-associated fungi present. Twelve taxa of fungi were determined from the root-tips collected in these two plantations. Four taxa were identified to species, and five were identified as putative ectomycorrhizae.  Scleroderma albidum was the only species found both fruiting and in the root-tip study.  Overall, species of Tomentella were the dominant taxa present in the two study areas.

Keywords: ecology – ITS ribosomal DNA region – mycorrhiza – Tomentella – tree plantations

 

6. Abundance of the soil entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato in agricultural field and forest soils in Japan

Authors: Nishi O, Iiyama K, Yasunaga-Aoki C, Shimizu S

Recieved: 08 July 2018, Accepted: 11 August 2018, Published: 30 August 2018

Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato is a facultative entomopathogenic, soil-inhabiting fungus that has been used for biological control of soil-dwelling arthropod pests. However, little is known about the density of M. anisopliae sensu lato in forest soils and the difference in the density among different habitat types and geographical origins. In this study, we determined the density of this fungus in soil samples collected from forest and agricultural fields in Japan by plating method with semi-selective agar medium and analyzed its associations with the habitat types and latitudes of the collecting sites. Mean and mode density of 211 soil samples were 9.4 × 102 CFUs/g soil and 1.0 × 103–1.0 × 104 CFUs/g soil, respectively, which were comparable to the levels previously reported in other countries. The density in forest soil was not significantly different from that of the other habitat types, despite previous studies that concluded M. anisopliae sensu lato to be less abundant in forest soil based on occurrence determined by insect bait method. The latitude was also not significantly associated with the density. This study revealed higher abundance of M. anisopliae sensu lato in forest soil than the original expectation. 

Keywords: associations – Clavicipitaceae – habitat – latitude

 

About CREAM Journal

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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