Volume 8 - 2018 - Issue 3


1. Detection of azole resistance and ERG11 point mutations in Candida albicans isolates from tertiary hospitals in the Philippines

Authors: Moron LS, Cabrera EC

Recieved: 19 February 2018, Accepted: 19 May 2018, Published: 08 May 2018

Candida albicans is commonly isolated from nosocomial fungal infections, and controlling these infections depends on the immune status of the patient, gravity of the infection, and the choice of the administered antifungal drug. Increasing worldwide reports of strains that are resistant to the azole drugs, which are commonly used for treatment of diseases caused by C. albicans, warrant the conduct of drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates, which is not routinely done in the Philippines. Twenty-six local C. albicans clinical isolates were tested for their susceptibility to the azole drugs fluconazole and voriconazole using the standard disc agar diffusion method. Likewise, the ERG11 gene coding for lanosterol-14--demethylase involved in ergosterol synthesis, which is the target of the azole drugs, was studied for the occurrence of point mutations.  Results of the assay showed phenotypic resistance patterns to both drugs in 19 isolates (or 73.08%). Six isolates were determined susceptible to both drugs, while one isolate was susceptible-dose dependent also to both antifungals. Detection of ERG11 mutations following nucleotide sequencing revealed the presence of point mutations A369C, T462C and C558T. Mutations A369C and T462C have been identified as possible factors associated with the resistance to azole agents in previous studies. The results imply that it is imperative to continuously perform susceptibility testing on clinical isolates of C. albicans for effective treatment management and for the surveillance of antifungal resistance in the organism. 

Keywords: Fluconazole – Voriconazole – Antifungal resistance – Susceptibility testing

 

2. A preliminary study of the ecological distribution and diversity of mushrooms in the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, USA

Authors: Onduso FN, Stephenson SL, Devil T

Recieved: 21 April 2018, Accepted: 02 May 2018, Published: 10 May 2018

Various macrofungi, commonly referred to as mushrooms, have been used since ancient times as food, as a source of natural dyes for clothing, for treating wounds, and for providing substances used as remedies to fight off infections. In nature, mushrooms are ecologically important because they have saprobic, parasitic and mycorrhizal relationships with plants. Native Americans have valued mushrooms for food as well as for their medicinal and hallucinogenic properties, but little information is available on either the occurrence or the use of mushrooms by the tribes of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. Prior to the present study, it was hypothesized that the four major types of habitats (upland forest, riverine forest, floodplain and grassland habitats) on the reservation would be characterized by significant differences in mushroom species richness (number of species) and diversity. To assess these patterns, transect lines 10 m wide by 100 m long were established in examples of the four different habitats, and mushrooms were surveyed in July and August of 2017. At least 22 species were recorded, and differences in their distribution among the four habitats were apparent. 

Keywords: Ecology – habitats – macrofungi – Native Americans – North Dakota – South Dakota

 

3. Agro–industrial residues as alternative sources for cellulases and xylanases production and purification of xylanase produced by Aspergillus flavus AUMC 10331 isolated from extreme habitat

Authors: Ismail MA, Moubasher AH, Ramadan A Mohamed, Al–Bedak OA

Recieved: 26 December 2018, Accepted: 08 May 2018, Published: 17 May 2018

Agro–industrial residues, namely wheat bran (WB), red sawdust (RSD), white sawdust (WSD), corn cobs (CC), rice husk (RH) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) were used as alternatives of pure xylan for production of xylanase, carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) and avicellase in solid state (SSF) and submerged (SmF) fermentation using Aspergillus flavus AUMC 10331. In SSF, WB was the most utilizable yielding the highest concentration of xylanase (792.4 IU.gds-1) and CMCase (101.8 IU.gds-1) and RH was the best for avicellase (152.4 IU.gds-1). In SmF, A. flavus regularly utilized all substrates to produce the three enzymes. From the six plant residues, CC was the superior source for xylanase production (9660 IU.gds-1) and CMCase production (307 IU.gds-1), while RH registered the highest avicellase (5554 IU.gds-1). Xylanase from CC was purified using ion exchange (IR–120 EP) and Sephadex G-75 column chromatography. The purified xylanase showed activity of 32.77 IU.ml-1.min-1 and a specific activity of 273.1 IU.mg-1 proteins. The enzyme was active over a pH range of 4.5–8.0, and its highest activity was detected at pH 7.0 and 65 ºC. Xylanase activity was stimulated by FeSO4 up to 121.97 %. Km and Vmax were 12.18 mg.ml-1 and 204.1 IU.min-1, respectively.

Keywords: avicellase – cellulose – solid state fermentation – submerged fermentation – Wadi–El–Natrun region – xylanase

 

4. Mycelia growth performance of Agaricus bisporus in culture media of composts supplemented with Sesbania sesban straw and phosphate rock

Authors: Rashid HM, Abed IA, Owaid MN

Recieved: 09 February 2018, Accepted: 22 June 2018, Published: 27 June 2018

Alternate composts are used to improve button mushroom growth. Egyptian pea (Sesbania sesban) straw is used for the first time in growing mushrooms. WHS2 medium (30% wheat straw, 45% horse manure, 15% Egyptian pea (Sesbania sesban) straw, 5% CaSO4 and 5% phosphate rock) is considered best significant (p<0.05) compost extract for mycelial growth rates of Agaricus bisporus which reached 86.33 mm compared with the control (WH) 80.83 mm after 14 days. However, the lower growth rates have been recorded 46.50 mm and 53.83 mm on WCS2 and WCS1 media, respectively. As in the solid media, WHS2 broth is exhibited higher biomass weight of A. bisporus 4.24 g/L significantly (p<0.05), whereas, lower biomass weights were 1.60 and 1.73 g/L in WCS2 and WCS1 broths, respectively. Generally, Agaricus bisporus C9 (brown strain) has been growing best than A. bisporus F599 (white strain) as observed in the current study. In conclusion, using Egyptian pea (S. sesban) extract plus phosphate rock enhances the importance of the compost with horse manure compared with chicken manure for growing A. bisporus, in vitro.

Keywords: Biomass – button mushroom – C:N ratio – decomposing – Egyptian pea

 

5. New records of Ascomycetous fungi from Andaman Islands, India and their molecular sequence data

Authors: Niranjan M, Tiwari S, Baghela A, Sarma VV

Recieved: 12 May 2018, Accepted: 20 June 2018, Published: 27 June 2018

Information on fungal diversity in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India is meagre. We are investigating the ascomycetous fungal diversity colonizing decaying plant litter in Andaman Islands. Recent collections have yielded four new records of ascomycetes: Diaporthae phaseolorum, Eutypa flavovirens, Rhytidhysteron rufulum and Trichoderma peltatum. These species are reported in this paper supported with morphological and molecular sequencing analyses. 

Keywords: 4-new records – Diaporthae phaseolorum – Eutypa flavovirens – Rhytidhysteron rufulum – Trichoderma peltatum – taxonomy

 

6. New Ascomycetous fungi in the family Aigialaceae from Andaman Islands, India

Authors: Niranjan M, Sarma VV

Recieved: 03 February 2018, Accepted: 25 April 2018, Published: 27 June 2018

The examination of fallen, decaying twigs of different plants for a study on the diversity of saprobic, filamentous ascomycetous fungi from Andaman Islands, India, revealed 3 new species in the genera Fissuroma and Neoastrosphaeriella. These new taxa are introduced as Fissuroma kavachabeejae sp. nov., F. microsporum sp. nov. and Neoastrosphaeriella alankrithabeejae sp. nov. in the family Aigialaceae. Fissuroma kavachebeejae is distinct from other species in having a white colored slit instead of brown or black slit in addition to differing in dimensions of ascomata, asci and ascospores. Fissuroma microsporum differs from other species of Fissuroma in having smaller ascospores. Neoastrosphaeriella alankrithabeejae is identical from the type N. krabiensis (in having larger asci and ascospores. These new species are described in this paper supported by photomicrographs and are compared with closely related species, and a synopsis of important characters of the related species is provided in a table.

Keywords: 3 new species – Dothideomycetes – morphology – Pleosporales – Taxonomy

 

7. Basidiome reduction in litter-inhabiting Thelephorales in boreal forest environments: morphological and molecular evidence

Authors: Zmitrovich IV, Shchepin ON, Malysheva VF, Kalinovskaya NI, Volobuev SV, Myasnikov AG, Ezhov ON, Novozhilov YuK

Recieved: 09 April 2018, Accepted: 28 May 2018, Published: 27 June 2018

Diversification of many taxa of thelephoroid fungi is associated with basidiome reduction via transition to life and sporulation within caverns of windfall-soil complexes as well as between fallen logs and moss cover in boreal forests. The present expertise observation regarding the xylotrophic fungi and its niches. The present report describes a number of boreal Thelephorales with reduced basidiomes with considerations on the evolution of basidiome within the group based on molecular phylogeny. Two new forms (Hydnellum concrescens f. petaloides and Phellodon melaleucus f. suspensis) were described, rare species Hydnellum gracilipes is characterized molecularly, and one replacing name (Thelephora wakefieldii) as well as two new combinations (Th. ellisii and Th. umbrinella) were made. The molecular characterization of Phellodon secretus holotype is given for the first time here.

Keywords: basidiome reduction – boreal forests – molecular taxonomy – morphological rationalization – thelephoroid fungi

 

8. Limacella brunneovenosa, a new species of Limacella sect. Amanitellae from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

Authors: Nascimento CC, Wartchow F

Recieved: 22 March 2018, Accepted: 18 June 2018, Published: 28 June 2018

A new species of Limacella sect. Amanitellae, namely L. brunneovenosa, is described based on morphological and anatomical evidence. It is compared with similar species and illustrated with line drawings and photographs. This species was found in “Floresta Nacional Restinga de Cabedelo”, an Atlantic Forest protected area located in the municipality of Cabedelo, State of Paraíba, Brazil. In addition, we present a list and some remarks about Central and South American species of Limacella.

Keywords: Agaricales – Agaricomycetes – Amanitaceae – Neotropics – taxonomy

 

9. Distribution of polypores along the altitudinal gradients in Silent Valley National Park, Southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India

Authors: Adarsh CK, Vidyasagaran K, Ganesh PN

Recieved: 15 May 2018, Accepted: 14 June 2018, Published: 28 June 2018

The distribution pattern of polypores in Silent Valley National Park along different altitudinal gradient were analyzed. A total of 34 species under five families were documented by the plot-based survey conducted from the National Park. Most of the species showed a drastic reduction in density as the altitude increases.  In lower altitude wet evergreen forest at Sairandhri (1000-1050 m) possessed more number of species (29 species) and found to be gradually decreasing as the altitude increases.  The species richness decreased to 27 species (7 % reduction) at Poochippara (1150-1200 m) and in Walakkad (1300-1350 m) it was reduced to 25 (14 % reduction). Interestingly it was reduced to 11 species in Sispara (1950-2000 m) with 63 % reduction as comparing to that of the lower altitude. At Cheriyamkandam (2100-2150 m) and Valliyamkandam (2200-2250 m) the species richness was found to be 8 and 5 with 72 per cent and 83 per cent reduction respectively as comparing to that of Sairandhri. This monotonic decrease in species richness is also reflected in the polypore density. The density was found to be decreased from 2613 at Sairandhri (1000-1050 m) to 435 in high altitude shola forest at Valliyamkandam (2200-2250 m).

Keywords: Clinal Variation – Diversity – Evergreen – Mycology – Polyporales – Shola Forest

 

10. Phylogenetic placement of Akanthomyces muscarius, a new endophyte record from Nypa fruticans in Thailand

Authors: Vinit K, Doilom M, Wanasinghe DN, Bhat DJ, Brahmanage RS, Jeewon R, Xiao Y, Hyde KD

Recieved: 01 May 2018, Accepted: 19 June 2018, Published: 29 June 2018

A species of Akanthomyces (Cordycipitaceae, Hypocreales) was isolated as an endophyte from healthy leaves of Nypa fruticans collected in Krabi Province, Thailand. The species was identified as Akanthomyces muscarius based on phylogenetic analyses of the ITS gene region, as well as a combined LSU, SSU, TEF1 and RPB2 sequence dataset. Previously reported descriptions for A. muscarius are brief and based on few observations. In the present study, detailed descriptions of cultural and morphological characters of the new isolate are given. Phylogenies based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses indicate that our new isolate clusters with extant strains of A. muscarius with good support and is sister to the genus Lecanicillium. Descriptions of the isolate match well with previously published data and our phylogeny supports the species identification. The asexual fungus A. muscarius is a new record for Thailand.

Keywords: new record – Akanthomyces – Cordycipitaceae – mangrove

 

About CREAM Journal

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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