Volume 11 - 2021
2. Small plot surveying reveals high fungal diversity in the Ecuadorian Amazon – a case study
Gates GM et al. (2021)
1. Biodegradation of plastics waste using fungi: A review
Asiandu AP et al. (2021)
Volume 10 - 2020
38. Efficacy of Arcopilus cupreus as biological agent to control Phytophthora spp. causing root rot of mandarin citrus
Noireung P et al. (2020)
37. Species listing of macrofungi on the Bugkalot Tribal community in Alfonso Castañeda, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines
Torres ML et al. (2020)
36. Cultivation of wild indigenous Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus subrufescens from Pakistan
Siddiqui WN et al. (2020)
35. Growing of Polyporus umbellatus
Pasailiuk MV (2020)
Volume 8 - 2018 - Issue 2
Authors: Corriol G and Jargeat P
Recieved: 25 August 2017, Accepted: 26 December 2017, Published: 16 February 2018
Albomagister virgineus is described as a new species from a collection from Hautes-Pyrénées in France. Morphological and molecular studies clearly separate it from related species of Albomagister. The assignment to Albomagister is presently suitable, however, morphological characters and a complementary morphological analysis of A. alesandrii, the only representative of the genus in Europe, contradicted the recent circumscription of this genus. Molecular results confirmed these findings and suggest heterogeneity among the Albomagister.
Keywords: 1 new species – Basidiomycota – France – Hautes-Pyrénées– Taxonomy – Tricholomataceae
Authors: Rajagopal K, Meenashree B, Binika D, Joshila D, Tulsi PS, Arulmathi R, Kathiravan G, Tuwar A
Recieved: 02 November 2017, Accepted: 16 December 2017, Published: 16 February 2018
Foliar endophytic fungi were isolated from regular hydrophytic plants such as Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae), Nymphaea nouchali (Nymphaeaceae), Vallisneria spiralis (Hydrocharitaceae) growing in a pond in the Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Five hundred leaf segments from each plant species were inoculated in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium. A total of 18 different endophytic fungi could be isolated from three host surveyed. Hyphomycetes group was the most prevalent endophyte than ascomycetes, coelomycetes, and sterile form. Nymphaea nouchali had more endophytic fungi (18 species) followed by Eichhornia crassipes (12 species), and Vallisneria spiralis (11 species). To our knowledge Vallisneria spiralis is studied for endophytic fungi diversity for the first time. Among the 18 endophytic fungi isolated, nine were present in all three hosts investigated for endophytic fungi. Curvularia lunata, Chaetomium indicum, Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis sp. showed <5% of colonization frequency in all three host species studied. The culture filtrate of Curvularia lunata, Nigrospora oryzae, Chaetomium indicum and Pestalotiopsis microspora investigated contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and steroids. The dominant endophytic fungi were tested for production of extracellular enzymes like amylase, cellulase, L- asparaginase, laccase and protease. Curvularia lunata, Chaetomium indicum and Pestalotiopsis microspora produced all the enzymes tested, whereas Nigrospora oryzae did not produce L- asparaginase. The culture filtrate of Chaetomium indicum and Pestalotiopsis microspora significantly increased the cell division in Allium cepa root meristem and the radical plumule length in AD8 rice variety.
Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes – Nymphaea nouchali – Vallisneria spiralis – Hydrophyte – Leaves – Bioactive compounds
3. Tracing an inoculated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Funneliformis mosseae, in a field experiment using molecular tools
Authors: Thilagar G, Anshu BR, Bagyaraj DJ, Mathimaran N, Jawali N
Recieved: 22 November 2017, Accepted: 30 January 2018, Published: 16 February 2018
The aim of this study was to assess the presence of inoculated AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae (earlier called Glomus mosseae), applied as part of the microbial consortia (MC) in the root zone of chilly (Capsicum annuum L.) plants from the field experiment through nested PCR based approach. A field experiment was conducted with 100% recommended level of chemical fertilizers and 50% recommended level of chemical fertilizers plus selected microbial consortia i.e., Funneliformis mosseae + Bacillus sonorensis in order to find out the possibility of reducing the recommended level of chemical fertilizer for cultivation of chilly. The introduced inoculum Funneliformis mosseae was tracked from the field by amplifying a region of rRNA gene using specific primers followed by sequencing. Total DNA was extracted from the roots of chilly plants. The universal eukaryote primer pair NS5/ITS4 was initially used for the first amplification and further amplified by Glomeraceae specific primer GLOM1310, in conjugation with the universal primer ITS4i. The amplicon was obtained only from plant root inoculated with microbial consortia and its sequence validated the presence of F. mosseae.
Keywords: AM fungus – Chilly – Nested PCR
4. Antifungal activity and chemical composition of ginger essential oil against ginseng pathogenic fungi
Authors: Hussein KA, Joo JH
Recieved: 10 October 2017, Accepted: 07 February 2018, Published: 20 February 2018
A large number of common herbs possess antimicrobial activity, because of their bioactive components, and some of them have become new potential anti-infective agents. In the present study, the antifungal activity of the essential oil from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) was tested. The compositions of the oil was analyzed by GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against six pathogenic fungi causing ginseng root rot disease were determined for the essential oil. Ginger essential oil possessed significant antimicrobial effects against all phytopathogenic fungi tested. Only 0.3 % (v/v) concentration of ginger oil exhibited complete inhibition against Alternaria panax, Botrytis cinerea, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Sclerotinia nivalis. The major constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale) oil were citral (2, 6-octadienal, 3, 7-dimethyl) (76.94%), verbenyl ethyl ether (3.98 %), geranic acid (2.57%) and artemiseole (1.12%). The results of this investigation show evidence that the essential oil of ginger represent a potentially rich source for natural antimicrobials and may be useful as alternative anti-infectious agent to control ginseng root rot fungi.
Keywords: ginseng root rot – natural antimicrobials – Zingiber officinale
Authors: Moro LB, Delgado G, Schoenlein-Crusius IH
Recieved: 01 November 2017, Accepted: 30 November 2017, Published: 20 February 2018
During the period of June, 2012 to May, 2013, water and submerged mixed leaf litter samples were collected from 22 waterfalls and rivers at Ilhabela State Park, municipality of Ilhabela, São Paulo State, Brazil, to survey the diversity of freshwater hyphomycetes. Thirty-nine species were collected for the first time from the park after incubating samples in Petri-dishes containing pond and sterile distilled water. Camposporidium cristatum Nawawi & Kuthub., Chaetendophragmia triangularis Matsush., Physalidiella elegans (Mosca) Rulamort and Scutisporus brunneus K. Ando & Tubaki are recorded for the first time for São Paulo State and Isthmolongispora biramifera Matsush., Lateriramulosa a-inflata Matsush., Phalangispora nawawii Kuthub. and Triscelophorus ponapensis Matsush. are new records from Brazil. Descriptions, comments and illustrations are presented for each species.
Keywords: Island environments – morphology – submerged substrate – taxonomy
6. Microsphaeropsis ononidicola sp. nov. (Microsphaeropsidaceae, Pleosporales) from Ononis spinosa L.
Authors: Thambugala KM, Hyde KD, Camporesi E, Liu ZY
Recieved: 20 February 2018, Accepted: 22 February 2018, Published: 06 March 2018
A new collection of Microsphaeropsis was made from Ononis spinosa L. in Italy. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses of ITS, LSU and β-tubulin gene regions, combined with a detailed morphological analysis confirm its placement in Microsphaeropsis, Microsphaeropsidaceae. The novel collection is phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from other Microsphaeropsis species and a new species, Microsphaeropsis ononidicola, is therefore, introduced in this paper.
Keywords: 1 new species – β-tubulin – ITS – LSU – new species – Italy
7. Short-term study of subalpine forest soils reveals that microbial communities are strongly influenced by the litter and organic layers
Authors: Luo X, Xu JC, Karunarathna SC, Hyde KD, Mortimer PE
Recieved: 14 February 2018, Accepted: 08 March 2018, Published: 12 March 2018
Given the wide range of factors influencing soil microbial communities, the aim of our study was to investigate how these communities respond to changes in plant inputs, litter, and removal of soil organic layers, in a subalpine forest. Our study site was located on the slopes of Yulong Snow Mountain, Yunnan, China. We analyzed the effect of litter, tree roots, and the organic horizon on soil microbial communities, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and by monitoring any changes in soil properties, over two months. Our results showed that the gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G-), after the second month of all treatments, was significantly higher than after the first month of treatment. The biomass of the soil microbial community is sensitive to response to variation of the soil environment. Removal of the organic horizon and additional litter coverage significantly decreased the biomass of fungi, fungi/bacteria and total PLFA, and significantly increased the G+/G- ratio compared with the control and other treatments after two months. Organic horizon and litter layer removal significantly increased the G+/G- ratio. Litter removal significantly increased the biomass of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Contrary to our expectations, root removal had no effect on the biomass of the soil microbial communities during two months’ treatment.
Keywords: litter – organic matter – phospholipid fatty acid – root cutting – soil properties
8. Pontoporeia mangrovei sp. nov, a new marine fungus from an Indian mangrove along with a new geographical and host record of Falciformispora lignatilis
Authors: Devadatha B, Sarma VV
Recieved: 06 January 2018, Accepted: 06 March 2018, Published: 13 March 2018
Pontoporeia mangrovei, a new marine fungal species is reported from Muthupet mangroves, southeast coast of India. Pontoporeia mangrovei is characterized by cleistothecial, dark brown to black, carbonaceous, semi-immersed to superficial, non-ostiolate ascomata with broadly clavate, ovoid, or ellipsoidal asci. Ascospores are 1-septate, biturbinate to ellipsoidal, hyaline to purple when young and dark brown to black at maturity. The new species differs from Pontoporeia biturbinata in having shorter ascomata, asci and ascospores dimensions and by occurring on Avicennia marina and Suaeda monoica in mangrove environments, in contrast to a sea grass host (Posidonia oceanica) of the latter. Falciformispora lignalitis is reported from an Indian mangrove for the first time and hence the present collection expands its geographical range. Aegiceras corniculatum is a new host record for this fungus.
Keywords: 1 new species – Avicennia marina – Aegiceras corniculatum – Pleosporales – Suaeda monoica – Taxonomy
Authors: Mbaluto C, Runo S, Wanyoike W, Onyango C, Kimani W, Jagger H, Otieno DO
Recieved: 31 December 2018, Accepted: 09 March 2018, Published: 15 March 2018
A new Macrolepiota species from the Aberdare Forest in Kenya is described and illustrated. The larger basidiomata with yellow brownish to brownish granular squamules, distinct umbo, larger basidia and smaller ellipsoid basidiospores form remarkable features that separate this species from previously published members belonging to the genus Macrolepiota. The phylogenetic analyses based on ITS-rDNA sequences further supported this distinction.
Keywords: Agarics – ITS rDNA – morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy
Authors: Njuguini SKM, Muchane MN, Wachira P, Okoth S, Muchane M, Saado H
Recieved: 04 October 2017, Accepted: 30 March 2018, Published: 02 April 2018
Tropical forests are a haven of biodiversity hosting the richest macrofungi in the World. However, the rate of forest loss greatly exceeds the rate of species documentation and this increases the risk of losing macrofungi diversity to extinction. A field study was carried out in Kereita, Kikuyu Escarpment Forest, southern part of Aberdare range forest to determine effect of indigenous forest conversion to plantation forest on diversity of macrofungi. Macrofungi diversity was assessed in a 22 year old Pinus patula (Pine) plantation and a pristine indigenous forest during dry (short rains, December, 2014) and wet (long rains, May, 2015) seasons. Field and laboratory methods included recording abundance and presence of fruiting bodies, taxonomic work and analysis of diversity in terms of density, species diversity indices and richness. A total number of 224 species were distributed across 28 families and 76 genera. Macrofungi species from families of Agaricaceae (20%), Mycenaceae (13%), Polyporaceae (10%) and Tricholomataceae (9%) were commonly represented taxa in the ecosystem. Most of the macrofungi recorded were saprophytic, mostly colonizing the litter and wood (41% and 36% respectively) based substrates, followed by soil organic matter species (15%). Ecto-mycorrhizal fungi (5%) and parasitic fungi (3%) were the least represented. Indigenous forests (natural ecosystems) recorded a wide range of mushroom assemblage (average of 6.5 species in a 400m2 plot and 3.5 individual fruiting bodies in 1m2 plot) compared to pine plantation forest. Conversion of indigenous forest to pine plantation altered species composition, but did not affect species diversity. More than 50% of the total macrofungi species were encountered during the wet season. Our results confirm diverse macrofungi community in forested ecosystems in Kenya, and need for their conservation.
Keywords: Composition – Density – Pinus patula – Plantation forest – Seasonality – Species richness
11. Heavy metals accumulation by epiphytic foliose lichens as bio-monitors of air quality in Srinagar city of Garhwal hills, Western Himalaya (India)
Authors: Singh P, Singh PK, Tondon PK, Singh KP
Recieved: 20 February 2018, Accepted: 01 April 2018, Published: 05 April 2018
The research aims to assess the degree of accumulation of six heavy metals e.g., iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) by epiphytic foliose lichen species(Canoparmelia texana, Pyxine subcineria and Phaeophyscia hispidula) in a polluted area of Srinagar city and its surroundings in the Garhwal hills of the Western Himalaya. Srinagar city is one of the largest towns situated in Garhwal hills through which National highway 58 (NH58) passes and ends at Mana pass that cause atmospheric pollution due to emissions from heavy vehicular traffic activity throughout the year. Results indicated that Canoparmelia texana was least accumulated to Fe, Zn, Cr and Cu than the Pyxine subcineria and Phaeophyscia hispidula where heavy metals were significantly increased due to exposure of pollutants while Pyxine subcineria showed maximum accumulation. Pb and Ni were not detected in Canoparmelia texana. Heavy metal concentrations were ranked in order to Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni in the studied lichen species. Canoparmelia texana,a foliose lichen was sensitive and found in Kandolia forest area where minimum exposure of pollution was found while Phaeophyscia hispidula and Pyxine subcineria were tolerant species that accumulated significantly different level of heavy metals as per exposure of pollution level. Thus, foliose lichens indicated air quality levels in different areas of Srinagar city.
Keywords: Air Pollution – Bioindicator – Concentration – Lichen
Authors: Owaid MN, Muslat MM, Abed IA
Recieved: 02 February 2018, Accepted: 09 April 2018, Published: 10 April 2018
The reed plant (Phragmites australis) is available as an economical alternative to wheat straw, when the last substrate is unavailable or has a high price, to apply it in the preparing compost for the cultivation of white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus X25. Reed straw compost recorded the best total yield (441 g/tray) compared with 371 g/tray by the wheat straw compost (control). Also, use of Actinomycetes Streptomyces sp. in the biodegradation processes of compost, lead to increase the total yield of A. bisporus X25 to 430 g/tray compared with the microbiologically non-treated composts (376 g/tray), after 21 days from primordia appearance significantly (p<0.05). Quality and size of fruiting bodies were varied from compost to another one depended on diameter of cap (pileus) and length of stipe. The more significant diameter had been recorded 56 mm for fruits on reed straw compost while the lower diameter was 42 mm on fruits of the control compost (wheat straw compost).
Keywords: Agaricus bisporus – agricultural wastes – compost – mushroom – Streptomyces sp.