Volume 11 - 2021
2. Small plot surveying reveals high fungal diversity in the Ecuadorian Amazon – a case study
Gates GM et al. (2021)
1. Biodegradation of plastics waste using fungi: A review
Asiandu AP et al. (2021)
Volume 10 - 2020
38. Efficacy of Arcopilus cupreus as biological agent to control Phytophthora spp. causing root rot of mandarin citrus
Noireung P et al. (2020)
37. Species listing of macrofungi on the Bugkalot Tribal community in Alfonso Castañeda, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines
Torres ML et al. (2020)
36. Cultivation of wild indigenous Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus subrufescens from Pakistan
Siddiqui WN et al. (2020)
35. Growing of Polyporus umbellatus
Pasailiuk MV (2020)
Volume 8 - 2018 - Issue 1
Authors: Bhatt RP, Singh U, Uniyal P
Recieved: 28 August 2017, Accepted: 04 December 2017, Published: 25 January 2018
The Himalayan forests of Uttarakhand represent a natural repository for the rich biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. Forest resources in this region form an integral part of socio-economy and cultural practices. Mushrooms are forest products which have been used as food for a long time but very few for therapeutic purposes, which is associated to the lack of awareness and knowledge. If properly identified, these mystic organisms can be very promising in prevention and cure of various ailments. The present study is a part of macrofungal exploration carried out from 2015–2016. As a result, 15 mushroom species are identified which possess a spectrum of bioactive compounds and therapeutic potential. All of these species are morphologically described along with the habit, habitat and notes on their healing capacities.
Keywords: Medicinal mushrooms – Uttarakhand Himalaya
Authors: Sá MCA, Coimbra VRM and Wartchow F
Recieved: 05 September 2017, Accepted: 18 January 2018, Published: 30 January 2018
Russula rubropunctatrissima (Russulaceae), a species described from French Guiana, was collected for the first time in Northeast Brazil. It is characterized mostly by the reddish brown pileus, granules on the pileus and stipe and the small basidiospores 4.6–6.1 × (4.1–)5.1–5.6 µm, that differ from the purplish-lilaceous species of the subsection Pluviales.
Keywords: Agaricomycetes – Basidiomycota – Neotropic – Russulales – taxonomy
Authors: Abasova LV, Aghayeva DN and Takamatsu S
Recieved: 08 November 2018, Accepted: 25 January 2018, Published: 30 January 2018
This study was performed to contribute towards an inventory of powdery mildews in Azerbaijan. Thirty-four powdery mildew samples on 18 host species were collected between 2014 and 2016 in different regions of Azerbaijan and examined by means of morphological and molecular methods. Consequently, 18 powdery mildew taxa have been identified. The morphological characteristics of these species are described and illustrated. Erysiphe arcuata, E. berberidis var. asiatica, E. corylacearum, E. quercicola, E. syringae-japonicae, and E. viciae-unijugae are new records of powdery mildews for Azerbaijan. In addition, Castanea sativa is a new host for E. quercicola, Lathyrus odorathus for E. viciae-unijugae, Berberis vulgaris for E. berberidis var. asiatica, and Carpinus orientalis for E. arcuata.
Keywords: Erysiphaceae – molecular analysis – morphology – new host records – taxonomy
Authors: Greeshma AA, Sridhar KR and Pavithra M
Recieved: 06 September 2017, Accepted: 18 January 2018, Published: 30 January 2018
The occurrence of ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. is common in scrub jungles of southwest India and tender sporocarps serve as ethnic nutritional source for local dwellers during southwest monsoon season. Evaluation of the nutritional constituents of uncooked and cooked tender sporocarps revealed significantly higher quantity of total lipids and calorific value in uncooked than cooked samples, while it was opposite for the crude protein. There was no significant change in crude fibre and carbohydrates between uncooked and cooked samples. Uncooked as well as cooked samples were rich in potassium followed by iron. The Na-K ratio in uncooked as well as cooked samples (<1) was favourable, while the Ca-P ratio (<1) was not favourable. In cooked samples, most of the essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, methionine, cystine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine and valine) were significantly increased. The in vitro protein digestibility was significantly higher in uncooked than cooked samples. The protein digestibility corrected to amino acid score was moderate to high (uncooked, 58-104; cooked, 54-91). The protein efficiency ratios in uncooked and cooked samples (>2) depicts the high quality of protein. Among the fatty acid methyl esters, oleic acid in uncooked samples, while palmitic and stearic acids in cooked samples were significantly higher. The tender sporocarps of Amanita sp. in scrub jungles of southwestern India provide valuable nutrients to the local dwellers during monsoon period.
Keywords: Amino acids – fatty acids – minerals – protein bioavailability – proximal qualities
Authors: Guimarães RA, Barbosa ET, Silva-Lobo VL, Côrtes MVCB
Recieved: 05 December 2017, Accepted: 30 January 2018, Published: 07 February 2018
Applying a prototype biopesticide containing Sarocladium oryzae as a biocontrol agent at the time of sowing significantly reduced common bean root rot disease caused by the soil-borne fungi Rhizoctonia solani with in vivo experiments. The results suggest that there is a possibility of using Sarocladium oryzae as part of a more economically and environmentally sustainable root rot disease management.
Keywords: Biopesticide – Biocontrol – Cerulenin – Soil-borne pathogen
6. Estimating levels of light emission and extracellular peroxidase activity of mycelium of luminous fungus Neonothopanus nambi treated with β-glucosidase
Authors: Mogilnaya OA, Ronzhin NO, Bondar VS
Recieved: 07 September 2017, Accepted: 18 January 2018, Published: 07 February 2018
The present study estimates the level of extracellular peroxidase activity and light emission intensity of mycelium of luminescent basidiomycete Neonothopanus nambi treated with β-glucosidase. A hypothesis has been proposed that treatment with β-glucosidase may trigger biochemical mechanisms of activation of ROS (primarily hydrogen peroxide) generation in N. nambi mycelium. The results obtained indicate that the enzyme causes partial disintegration of the slimy sheath of fungal hyphae and intracellular matrix, which leads to release of the extracellular peroxidases to the incubation medium. Mycelial cells treated with the enzyme reach the peak of their luminescence sooner. It has been assumed that partial loss of extracellular peroxidases, as important enzymes of antioxidant defense, may be compensated for by an increase in the level of light emission by the fungus.
Keywords: basidiomycetes – cell wall – luminescence – polysaccharide sheath
Authors: Udaya Prakash NK, Ashwin Karthick N, Poomagal D, Susithra M, Chandran M, Bhuvaneswari S
Recieved: 09 October 2017, Accepted: 18 January 2018, Published: 08 February 2018
Endophytic fungi are the organisms that colonize a plant without causing apparent harm to the host at any time in their life cycle. Endophytes from different angiosperms are widely studied however such studies from Pteridophytes are rare. In this study, the plant Marsilea minuta, an aquatic Pteridophyte belonging to the family Marsileaceae was explored for the presence of endophytic fungi. The plant was collected from four different places in and around Chennai (Avadi, Ambattur, Chengalpet and Guduvanchery). A total of 800 segment consisting leaflets, stolens, runners and roots (200 segments each) were investigated for the presence of endophytes. The study resulted in isolation of 574 colonies belonging to 17 fungal species among which 14 forms the Hyphomycetes, three forms the Coelomycetes and one form the non sporulating morphospecies. The data obtained were analysed statistically for relative density, colonization frequency, Species diversity indices like Gleason index, Shannon index, and Simpson’s dominance index.
Keywords: Aquatic – Endophytic Fungi – Pteridophyte – Statistical analysis
8. Increase in plant growth and biomass of Casuarina equisetifolia L. by incorporating three different fungi in the rhizosphere
Authors: Ojha S, Arya A
Recieved: 09 August 2017, Accepted: 18 January 2018, Published: 13 February 2018
Casuarina is a multipurpose tree, used for fuel wood, land reclamation, dune stabilization, shelter belts and pulp production. Roots of the plant are associated with a number of microbes present in rhizospheric zone. They have the basic physiology, which helps in survival of the plant in diverse situations. These microbes often serve to colonize the plant, which grow in poor soils. Many species of Casuarina grow on soil with low fertility, C. equisetifolia thrives in sand dunes or near the seashore. The outstanding ability of various Casuarinas to grow vigorously on poor soils is partly due to their unusual symbiosis with an actinomycete Frankia that enables them to use nitrogen directly from the atmosphere. Frankia plays a key role on the growth of Casuarina besides that there are other useful bio-inoculants present around the roots. Seedlings of C. equisetifolia were grown in the botanical garden of The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara. These were inoculated with three different fungi i.e. Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride and Chaetomium globosum either individually or in combinations. Growth was recorded at regular intervals. Root length, shoot height, basal diameter, and biomass were recorded. Application of bio-inoculants resulted into increased seedling growth, improved quality and nutrient uptake. Nodules were also collected after harvesting and different characteristic were recorded. Nodules recorded from plants having Aspergillus niger were more in number and bigger in size than Trichoderma viride and Chaetomium globosum. Plants inoculated with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride showed better seedling growth as compared to Ascomycetous fungus.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger – Bio-inoculants-Chaetomium – fungi, Plant biomass – Trichoderma viride
Authors: Tantengco OAG, Ragragio EM
Recieved: 11 December 2017, Accepted: 30 January 2018, Published: 13 February 2018
The Philippines is home to rich and diverse macrofungal species. Indigenous peoples are knowledgeable on macrofungi since they utilize these as food and medicine. However, ethnomycological knowledge has scarcely been documented in the Philippines. Thus, this study documented the macrofungal species utilized by Ayta communities as food and medicine in Bataan, Philippines. A total of 30 informants from the three Ayta communities participated in the survey. Most of the respondents belong the 26-45 year old age group. There were 15 species of macrofungi used by the three Ayta communities as food and medicines. However, only seven species of macrofungi were collected and identified. These edible species include Volvariella volvacea, Termitomyces sp, Auricularia polytricha, A. auricula-judae, Stereum sp., Schizophyllum commune and Ganoderma lucidum. Volvariella volvacea was the most important macrofungus in the three Ayta communities with the use value of 0.83. Ayta elders who reported the use of macrofungi as remedy for weakness, cough, common colds and poor eyesight. This documentation of ethnomycological knowledge provided a catalog of useful macrofungi of the Ayta. This can also serve as a physical record of their culture for the education of the future Ayta generation.
Keywords: ethnomycology – Ayta – indigenous community – macrofungi – mushroom
Authors: Mehmood T, Raspé O, Bhatt RP, Singh U
Recieved: 04 December 2017, Accepted: 30 January 2018, Published: 13 February 2018
Amanita subparvipantherina was collected along with several collections of Amanita from temperate forests of Uttarakhand, India. It is reported here as a first record for India. A detailed morphological description and comparison with other closely related taxa of Amanita, as well as a molecular phylogeny are provided.
Keywords: distribution extension – phylogeny – taxonomy – Western Himalaya
Authors: Mehmood T, Bhatt RP, Uniyal P, Singh U, Chowdhary AK
Recieved: 06 January 2017, Accepted: 30 January 2018, Published: 13 February 2018
Four species of genus Amanita namely; A. orsonii, A. rubrovolvata, A. subglobosa and A. hemibapha are identified from Uttarakhand, India. Morphological details, illustrations and phylogenetic observations based on ITS and nrLSU data are given here.
Keywords: Amanitaceae – molecular phylogeny – taxonomy − Uttarakhand Himalaya
12. Diversity of floricolous yeasts and filamentous fungi of some ornamental and edible fruit plants in Assiut area, Egypt
Authors: Moubasher AH, Abdel-Sater MA, Zeinab SM Soliman
Recieved: 04 September 2017, Accepted: 30 January 2018, Published: 13 February 2018
The floricolous yeasts and filamentous fungi of 44 samples of flowers from both ornamental (20 samples) and edible fruit plants (24 samples) were evaluated. The general isolation medium DRBC supported more fungal species diversity in both flowers, than the xerophilic media (DG18 and MY50G). The highest numbers of fungal propagules were recovered on DG18 from flowers of ornamental plants, while the lowest on MY50G from flowers of edible plants. Yeasts constituted small proportion of propagules from the two flower types on the three media. Yeasts were represented by 18 genera and 26 species. Metschnikowia (3 species, from which M. reukaufii and M. viticola), Candida (4 species, from which C. riodocensis and C. vaccinia), Cryptococcus (C. albidus var. kuetzingii), Meyerozyma (M. guilliermondii), Naganishia (N. diffluens), Rhodotorula (2 spp., R. mucilaginosa), and Vishniacozyma (2 spp., V. carnescens) were infrequently encountered on the three media, beside Filobasidium (2 species), Galactomyces (G. candidus), Papiliotrema (P. flavescens), Pichia (P. kluyveri), and Sporidiobolus (S. metaroseus) which were recorded on two media. Some other yeast species were recovered only from one flower type but not from the other. Cladosporium (10 species) was the most common genus (100 % of samples from both types of flowers), accounting from 66.45 % to 87.25 % of total fungi. C. herbarum, C. cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, and C. sphaerospermum were recovered in high frequency from both types of flowers, but C. herbarum yielded the major proportion (61.23 % to 75.77 % of total fungi). Other filamentous fungi e.g. Alternaria (19 species, from which A. alternata and A. chlamydospora), Aspergillus (47 species, from which A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus), Penicillium (29 spp., P. chrysogenum and P. olsonii), Fusarium (12 spp., F. incarnatum, F. solani, and F. verticillioides), and Stemphylium (3 species, S. botryosum and S. sarrciniforme) were found contaminating all flowers on almost all isolation media.
Keywords: Camel's foot tree – Candelabra – Chamomile – Fungi – Guava – ITS – Khella – Lemon – Mango – Phenotypic and genotypic characterization – Pomegranate – Snapdragon