Volume 7 - 2017 - Issue 4

1. Identification and diversity of the fruticose lichen Usnea in Kalinga, Luzon Island, Philippines

Authors: Galinato MGM, Mangubat CB, Leonor DS, Cababa GRC, Cipriano BPS and Santiago KAA

Recieved: 08 April 2017, Accepted: 12 June 2017, Published: 24 October 2017

 The mountains of Kalinga are home to countless unprecedented organisms. Its cool temperature and high elevation provide the perfect niche for such organisms to survive and these include the lichens. Kalinga harbors a wide variety of lichens stretching from crustose, foliose and fruticose types. Interestingly, the genus Usnea is one of the most commonly found fruticose lichens in the northern part of the Philippines. However, these organisms remain neglected and hence limited studies have been document. In fact, not a single species of Usnea has been recorded in the province of Kalinga. In this study, 289 Usnea samples were collected from four out of eight municipalities of Kalinga. Following published identification keys, 25 species were identified using the conventional morphological characterization and thalline spot test. Furthermore, the diversity of Usnea in the province was also determined through the use of biodiversity indices (i.e., Shannon-Weiner index & Pielou’s index) accounting for the diversity, evenness and dominance of species. In this study, the municipality of Pasil shelters the most diverse Usnea species (H = 2.696), while Balbalan has the highest species evenness (e = 0.920).

Keywords: distribution – diversity index– fungal diversity – lichen taxonomy


2. Ethnomycological survey of Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

Authors: Yafetto L and Osei-Bonsu V

Recieved: 23 June 2017, Accepted: 02 October 2017, Published: 24 October 2017

This study aimed to survey the ethnomycological knowledge of residents of Cape Coast Metropolis, an indigenous, but cosmopolitan community, south of Ghana. First, one hundred and fifty questionnaires were randomly administered to members of the metropolis to survey their knowledge about fungi. Second, 75 natives of selected indigenous communities within the metropolis were orally interviewed to evaluate their indigenous beliefs and utilization of fungi. Results suggest that most respondents are familiar with fungi, notably mushrooms (locally called mre) and the baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Paradoxically, most respondents agreed that fungi are plants. Most respondents disagreed that all fungi are edible, but agreed that some are edible, others poisonous and medicinal. An overwhelming majority of respondents agreed that yeast is used in baking, and that yeast found in palm wine is responsible for its alcoholic content. The study revealed most respondents agree fungi cause candidiasis, some skin infections and that worms cause ringworm (dermatophytosis or tinea). One interesting finding also is that whereas the elite read about fungi, ethnomycological knowledge among the natives is still transmitted through cultural practices and folklore. Responses from the natives in the indigenous communities largely corroborated most of the responses from respondents to whom questionnaires were administered. The natives identified at least one wild edible mushroom with its local name, and are mostly involved in their collection. They use the wild edible mushrooms for food and sell some for household income.

Keywords: Ethnomycology – fungi – indigenous community – indigenous knowledge – mushrooms


3. Antibacterial activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Agaricomycetes collected in Northeast Brazil

Authors: Ferreira-Silva V, Gusmão NB and Gibertoni TB

Recieved: 20 June 2017, Accepted: 06 September 2017, Published: 07 November 2017

Agaricomycetes produce bioactive substances with antibiotic, antiallergic, anti–inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antiatherogenic, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic anti–immunoprotective properties. However, there have been few studies on material collected in Brazil. Thus, the current study aimed to improve the knowledge concerning the antibacterial potential of Agaricomycetes in the country by researching material collected in Northeast Brazil. Twenty one cultures deposited in Micoteca URM of UFPE and nine extracts from fresh basidiomata were tested. Extracts of the basidiomata and the cultures were obtained with ethyl acetate, which were solubilized at a concentration (1:10 v/v). The preliminary tests with the 30 samples (21 cultures and nine extracts of fresh basidiomata) were performed against eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus, seven of which were resistant to oxacillin (ORSA), using block agar. Thirteen samples showed antibacterial activity, with inhibition between 9–24 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) from 0.18–147 µg/mL, Fomitopsis cupreorosea (URM 6830), Ganoderma multiplicatum (URM 6975), G. parvulum (URM 2948), G. orbiforme (URM87741), Grammothele lineata (URM6827), Rigidoporus lineatus (URM 6828), R. microporus (URM 6878), Stereum ostrea (URM 6973, URM 87848) being the most significant.

Keywords: antimicrobian – Fomitopsis – Ganoderma – Grammothele – Rigidoporus – Stereum


4. Panaeolus antillarum (Basidiomycota, Psathyrellaceae) from wild elephant dung in Thailand

Authors: Desjardin DE and Perry BA

Recieved: 14 August 2017, Accepted: 06 November 2017, Published: 08 November 2017

Panaeolus antillarum is reported from material collected on wild elephant dung in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. This new distribution report is supported with morphological and molecular sequence (ITS) data, line drawings, colour photographs and a comparison with material from the Antilles. 

Keywords: agarics – coprophilous fungi – fungal diversity – taxonomy


5. Species richness and composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi occurring on eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) in rainy and dry season

Authors: Khaekhum S, Lumyong S, Kuyper TW and Boonlue S

Recieved: 27 July 2017, Accepted: 02 October 2017, Published: 27 November 2017

River red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.), the most commonly planted eucalypt species globally, has several advantages and is widely used for many purposes, which makes the tree important. Mycorrhizal establishment in eucalyptus has been known for many years, and the benefits of this symbiosis have been commercially explored. The main goal of this research was to assess the diversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on eucalyptus planted in agricultural fields in the rainy and dry season. Fields were chosen in ten different sites located in four provinces in the northeast of Thailand. Rhizosphere soil and root samples were collected and the number of AMF spores and AMF root colonization were assessed. The number of AMF spores was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, while AMF root colonization was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. On the basis of morphological identification of AMF, a total of 35 AMF fungal taxa in eight genera were identified, ten belonging to Acaulospora, one to Dentiscutata, one to Entrophospora, 16 to Glomus, three to Gigaspora, one to Racocetra, two to Scutellospora, and one to Septoglomus. Glomus was the dominant genus followed by Acaulospora. Relative abundance, and frequency of occurrence were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Racocetra fulgida was the most common species with a frequency of occurrence of 90% in rainy season, and 80% in dry season. Species richness, Simpson’s index of dominance and Shannon–Wiener index of diversity were not significantly different between both seasons.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal – Colonization – Eucalyptus camaldulensis – Rhizosphere – Species diversity


6. Some pyronemataceous macrofungi from Ladakh (J&K), India

Authors: Yangdol R, Kumar S and Sharma YP

Recieved: 22 June 2017, Accepted: 11 October 2017, Published: 27 November 2017

Six pyronemataceous macrofungi representing four genera (Anthracobia, Geopora, Geopyxis and Pulvinula) were collected from various locations of Leh district of Ladakh during 2012–2014. These include two species each of Geopora and Pulvinula (Geopora arenicola, G. sepulta, Pulvinula convexella and P. miltina) and one species each of Anthracobia and Geopyxis (Anthracobia macrocystis and Geopyxis majalis respectively). All these taxa are being reported for the first time from Ladakh. Also, Geopora sepulta and Geopyxis majalis constitute new records for India while as Anthracobia macrocystis, Pulvinula convexella and P. miltina are new additions to the macrofungal flora of Jammu and Kashmir. 

Keywords: Ascomycetes – Ladakh – New records – Pezizales – Taxonomy


7. New location of rare macromycetes (Cerioporus rhizophilus, Galeropsis desertorum and Phellorinia herculeana) in Kazakhstan

Authors: Nam GA and Rakhimova YV

Recieved: 18 July 2017, Accepted: 06 November 2017, Published: 27 November 2017

Three species of rare macrofungi (Cerioporus rhizophilus, Galeropsis desertorum and Phellorinia herculeana) were collected from various habitats of Kazakhstan. Data on their habitats (new location) and short diagnosis with original dimensions and photographs of the fruit bodies were provided for each taxon.

Keywords: cap – fruit body – gasterocarp – gill – peridium – spore – stipe – tube


8. Diversity and biofilm inhibition activities of algicolous fungi collected from two remote islands of the Philippine archipelago

Authors: Lavadia MGB, Dagamac NHA and dela Cruz TE

Recieved: 03 July 2017, Accepted: 06 September 2017, Published: 27 November 2017

Algicolous fungi are valued for their pharmaceutically and agrochemically useful secondary metabolites. However, very few studies on algicolous fungi have been carried out in the Asia Pacific region, particularly in the Philippines, in spite of the country’s rich macroalgal flora. In this study, a total of 212 algicolous fungi belonging to 29 morphospecies were recorded from seaweeds (macroalgae) collected from Potipot Island and Lubang Island, northern Philippines. These fungi were identified as species of Aspergillus, Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Nigrospora, Pestalotia, Penicillium, and Trichoderma. Diversity assessment among collection sites and among algal groups was determined. Lubang Island registered higher species richness than Potipot Island, while brown algae had the highest compared to red and green algae. Species diversity measured by Shannon Index and Simpson Index showed no significant difference between the two study sites, while brown algae had the highest species diversity among the algal groups. Comparison of communities shows that the morphospecies clustered more based on the site they were collected, and not based on their algal host. Communities have more similarities between those isolated from the smaller island of Potipot than in Lubang, which may show that proximity and anthropogenic activity might affect the distribution of fungal communities. Extracts of the AF isolates were used against biofilm-forming S. aureus to determine whether AF can inhibit biofilm formation. The results of the assay showed that algicolous fungi extracts can successfully reduce biofilm formation as much as  99%.

Keywords: algicolous fungi – biofilm – biodiversity – macroalgae – seaweeds


9. Mycetozoan incidence in soils and their potential for ecosystem quality assessment.

Authors: Guyer HE, Rojas PA, Rollins AW and Rojas C

Recieved: 15 November 2017, Accepted: 28 November 2017, Published: 29 November 2017

Two experiments employing a modified version of the standard “Cavender Method” were used to evaluate the incidence patterns of myxomycete and dictyostelids associated with different soils collected across north and central America. The soils were subjected to variable culturing conditions and parameters including plant material quality, agar type and bacterial food source. Ecological variables such as geographic location and land use quality were also evaluated to determine potential differences affecting the soils. The study also aimed to document the potential for mycetozoans to serve as indicators of ecosystem quality. The results indicated that plant materials with middle hardness and moderate cellulose to lignin ratio, in conjunction with an intermediate rich culturing media favoured the growth of mycetozoans. Also, Bacillus subtilis represented a suitable alternative to Escherichia coli. Dictyostelids were more commonly recovered from tropical soils than temperate soils, while the opposite pattern was observed for myxomycetes. No differences in mycetozoan incidence were detected when landscape-scale and soil quality parameters were examined. Overall, data related to the utility of using mycetozoans as bioindicators are still limited, but the results of this study suggest that more targeted, scale-dependent studies are warranted. The modified protocol used herein appears to represent a reliable method to generate consistent data for ecological studies of mycetozoans, particularly when tropical soils are used.

Keywords: applied microbiology – biosystems – ecology – dictyostelids – myxomycetes


10. Red yeast as a powerful stable biopigment producer under various growth conditions

Authors: Ghada AEM and Walid MAA

Recieved: 07 September 2017, Accepted: 29 November 2017, Published: 04 December 2017

Most of the synthetic dyes found to be hazardous to human health therefore; we need to develop alternative source of natural food colorants.  The current study aimed to study different factors affecting on pigment production by Monascus purpureus. The optimal growth and pigment production factors were carbon and nitrogen source (Corn starch & yeast extract), medium pH 6 after fermentation time 12 days under shaking (150 rpm) at 30 ± 1 °C. The impact of testing different amino acids, metal ions and vitamins addition to the medium was explored by applying (100 µg/l) for each of them on the medium. The addition of Tryptophan was effective and enhanced both growth and production (3.9 g/l dry mass and 2.376 A500), Manganese improve growth and production with 4.6 g/l dry mass and 1.997 A500 and the addition of ascorbic acid also increase the production (4 g/l dry mass and 2.652 A500). The isolate seems to be tolerated the salinity stress until 2% for growth and production then production decrease until it stops completely at 6% NaCl. Maximum optical density values of red yeast pigment recorded at wavelength 500nm followed by 460nm. Red pigment shows various optical density values in different solutions (salicylic acid; citric acid and ascorbic acid. Testing different factors affecting on production is an efficient approach for the production of pigment through microbial fermentation by Monascus purpureus and could be utilized in industrial application. 

Keywords: Angkak – Monascus purpureus – Pigment – Production


11. Polyphasic identification of clinical Candida albicans in the Philippines

Authors: Moron LS, Oyong GG, Chua JCC and Cabrera EC

Recieved: 03 November 2017, Accepted: 28 November 2017, Published: 13 December 2017

Candida albicans is opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and noninvasive diseases. This yeast is not well-studied in the Philippines. Considering that identification to species level is necessary for empirical treatment of diseases it causes, and the difficulty in its identification using phenotypic methods, use of polyphasic assays is explored. Increasing yeast infections and drug resistance worldwide necessitate isolation and identification of C. albicans in its surveillance in the country. Study identified clinical isolates from two tertiary hospitals in Metro Manila using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Twenty-six clinical isolates were identified phenotypically using germ tube and chlamydospore production and carbon assimilation of glucose, maltose, galactose, and sucrose. Genotypic identification was done by determining internal transcribed space (ITS) sequences and construction of neighbor-joining tree using ITS sequences. Twelve isolates were phenotypically identified as C. albicans, while one isolate was identified as C. parapsilosis. These identities were confirmed at the ITS level. Yeast isolates that could not be identified phenotypically were identified as C. albicans following genotypic analysis. Genotypic identification is the gold standard for identification of C. albicans. A polyphasic approach in fungal identification provides a plethora of phenotypic and genotypic properties, which creates robust and accurate results. 

Keywords: Candida spp. – Chlamydospore – ITS sequencing – Yeast identification


12. Diversity of yeasts and filamentous fungi in five fresh fruit juices in Egypt

Authors: Abdel-Sater MA, Moubasher AH and Zeinab SM Soliman

Recieved: 06 August 2017, Accepted: 01 December 2017, Published: 13 December 2017

The present investigation aimed at evaluating five freshly prepared juices for their contamination with yeasts and filamentous fungi.  The mean pH values of juice samples ranged from 4.62 in strawberry to 6.45 in sugarcane. The general isolation medium DRBC supported more fungal species diversity in all juices, than both xerophilic media DG18 and MY50G. DRBC also supported more propagules originated from different juice types than DG18, however, more propagules were obtained on MY50G from only guava and orange juices. The highest numbers of propagules recovered on the three media were also from sugarcane followed by strawberry and guava, while the lowest from mango and orange. Moreover, yeasts almost predominated on DRBC, but filamentous fungi CFU excelled on DG18 in sugarcane and strawberry and on MY50G in orange only. Yeasts were represented by 25 genera and 48 species. Candida was the dominant genus of yeasts that contributed 11 species, from which C. bentonensis, C. quercitrusa, C. saitoana, C. santamariae var. membranifaciens, C. smithsonii, C. spandovensis and C. tropicalis were regularly identified from all juices on all isolation media, beside Hanseniaspora (2 species, from which H. uvarum), Pichia (5 spp., P. kluyveri, P. terricola), Cryptococcus (C. albidus var. kuetzingii), Debaryomyces (D. nepalensis), Papiliotrema (4 spp., P. terrestris), Rhodotorula (3 spp.), Saccharomycopsis (S. crataegensis), Saprochaete (S. gigas) and Torulospora (T. delbrueckii). Some other yeast species were recovered only from one juice but not from the others. Filamentous fungi e.g. Aspergillus (14 species, from which A. flavus), Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium (8 spp., C. cladosporioides, C. herbarum, C. sphaerospermum), Exophiala (2 spp.), Fusarium (6 spp.) and Penicillium (18 spp., P. chrysogenum and P. raistrickii.) were found contaminating all juices on almost all isolation media. Notably, 29 yeasts and filamentous species were reported on the xerophilic media only. Some filamentous species were also encountered from one juice only.

Keywords: Guava – ITS – Mango – Mycobiota – Orange – Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization – Strawberry – Sugarcane.


13. Studies on Boletellus sect. Boletellus in Brazil and Guyana

Authors: Barbosa-Silva A and Wartchow F

Recieved: 05 October 2017, Accepted: 07 December 2017, Published: 15 December 2017

Boletellus cremeovelosus (Boletaceae), a species that shows complete absence of reddish/pinkish tints on basidiome from the beginning with fuflly/soft squamules on pileus, is described from the state of Pernambuco, in Northeast Brazil. We also revised exsiccates of B. ananas var. ananas and B. ananas var. minor. Regarding to the presence of thick-walled cheilocystidia in the paratype of the last variety, we conclude that represent an immature basidiome of B. ananas var. crassotunicatus, representing a new record from South America.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes – Boletales – Neotropic – taxonomy


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Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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