Volume 6 - 2016 - Issue 3


1. Variation in conidiophore complexity in Aspergillus versicolor

Authors: Khalil AMA

Recieved: 23 March 2016, Accepted: 15 July 2016, Published: 01 August 2016

Aspergillus versicolor is an abundant species and habitually isolated from soil, plant debris, saline water environments, and indoor air environments. Cultural, macroscopic and microscopic features including ontogenesis process of Aspergillus versicolor (NRRL 238) were monitored. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopies were used to investigate the development of conidiophore and the process of conidium formation. Ontogeny of phialides in Aspergillus and Penicillium conidiophores were studied. Although, simultaneous production of phialides are confined to Aspergillus conidiophores and considered unique feature to Aspergillus species, former studies observed fragmentary heads resembling penicillate fructifications in Aspergills section versicolor. Our results revealed that, A. versicolor has ability to produce successive phialides separately such as those in Penicillium species and produce proper Penicillium conidiophore with monoverticillate structure besides Aspergillus conidiophore. This study designated to defines the development of Penicillium and Aspergillus conidiophores within A. versicolor as a member of section Versicolor.

Keywords: Aspergillus versicolor – conidiophore – ontogeny – scanning electron microscope

 

2. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the sporocarps of some wild mushrooms

Authors: Lalotra P, Gupta D, Yangdol R, Sharma YP, Gupta SK

Recieved: 01 May 2016, Accepted: 06 July 2016, Published: 01 August 2016

The fruiting bodies of wild mushrooms show high concentrations of heavy metals due to their efficacious mechanism of accumulation of these elements from soil. In accordance with this ability, three wild macrofungi viz., Macrolepiota procera (edible species), Amanita augusta (non-edible species), Boletus subvelutipes (poisonous species) and their respective soil samples collected from different forest areas of Jammu Province were analysed for the presence of  six heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd, Pb). The metallic content was established by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and Inductively coupled Plasma–Atomic Emission spectrometry method (ICP AES). The results of heavy metals concentration are given in mg of metal per kg of dry matter and demonstrate important variation between the level of concentration in edible, non edible and toxic species. Moreover, the mean element distribution varied depending upon the part of fruiting body of macrofungi. In A. augusta these elements were detected under permissible limits for consumption. On the contrary, high ratio of zinc, copper, manganese, iron, lead and cadmium were found in A. augusta and B. subvelutipes indicating that these elements are accumulated at much higher levels in these wild growing mushrooms. Thus, it is worthwhile to evaluate the metal content in the wild macrofungi to assess their contribution to the daily intake of several toxic elements so that it would adjudicate the mushrooms for its nutritive value in terms of minerals and also define the limits of safety. As mushrooms have been known to possess good nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential, a detailed analysis of their sporocarps is desirable before their incorporation into routine diet, drugs and medicine.

Keywords: Antioxidant – edibility – elements – macrofungi – pharmaceutical

 

3. An effective approach of strain improvement in Cordyceps militaris using abrin

Authors: Mani A, Thawani V, Zaidi KU

Recieved: 07 May 2016, Accepted: 15 July 2016, Published: 04 August 2016

Cordyceps militaris,a medicinal fungus facing conservation from excessive harvesting and specific environment need for growth. In this study, three different techniques for strain improvement viz., somatic fusion, protoplast fusion and UV irradiation were assessed for biomass, exo-polymer and cordycepin production. It was observed that, somatic hybridization was more effective and the developed hybrids were stable even after sub culturing. Moreover hybrids developed by protoplast fusion were stable rather U-V irradiation mutant showed characteristic changes after sub culturing. In the study abrin was used to trigger somatic fusion and it was found to be an effective approach in strain improvement.

Keywords: Biomass – Cordycepin – Exo-polymer – plasma fusion – somatic hybrization – UV irradiation

 

4. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of the corticolous lichens Canoparmelia aptata, Pannaria sp., and Parmotrema gardneri collected from Mt. Banahaw, Quezon, Philippines

Authors: De Jesus EE, Hur JS, Notarte KIR, Santiago KAA, dela Cruz TEE

Recieved: 22 May 2016, Accepted: 25 July 2016, Published: 24 August 2016

Lichens are remarkable sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with potential chemotherapeutic properties. In this study, we evaluated the bioactivities of three corticolous lichens collected from Mount Banahaw in Quezon Province, Philippines. The lichens Parmotrema gardneri, Pannaria sp., and Canoparmelia aptata were extracted with acetone and assayed for cytotoxicity, and antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Results showed that the lichen extracts of P. gardneri, Pannaria sp. and C. aptata were either active (13-19 mm, zone of inhibition, ZOI) or partially active (10-12 mm ZOI) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. For the cytotoxicity assay, P. gardneri had the lowest inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 12.29 and 20.24 µg/mL for the human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) and human lung carcinoma (A549), respectively. The same lichen extract rendered selectivity with IC50 of 66.35 µg/mL against the normal Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines. The extracts yielded low radical scavenging activity of less than 40% and generated low amounts of FeSO4 per milligram sample. Metabolic profiling detected the presence of protocetraric acid, usnic acid, zeorin, atranorin, chloroatranorin, and galbinic acid.

Keywords: chemotherapeutic – foliose lichens – secondary metabolites – selectivity

 

5. Assessing the ecological impact of whole watershed acidification on the myxomycetes associated with forest floor leaf litter

Authors: Pelloquin RA, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 14 June 2016, Accepted: 10 August 2016, Published: 24 August 2016

The ecological impact of whole watershed acidification on the myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) associated with forest floor leaf litter was investigated on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. Since 1989, ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been applied to a small forested watershed (WS3) on the Fernow. Samples of litter collected from this watershed and another adjacent watershed (WS7), which served as a control, were used to prepare a series of 100 moist chamber cultures for each of the two watersheds. Cultures prepared with samples from WS3 yielded more positive (some evidence of plasmodia or fruiting bodies) cultures (78%) than WS7 (73%), but the percentage of cultures in which fruiting bodies appeared was higher for WS7 (63%) than for WS3 (52%). This was also reflected in the total number of records of fruiting bodies, with 66 for WS3 and 92 for WS7. Sixteen species of myxomycetes were recorded from the two watersheds, but Arcyria cinerea was the overwhelming dominant, appearing in almost 40% of all moist chamber cultures. Four species (Perichaena chrysosperma, Physarum bivalve, Ph. lateritium, and Ph. viride) were common in one watershed and absent or represented by only one or two records in the other watershed. Although some differences were apparent for the assemblages of myxomycetes present in the two watersheds, these were all relatively minor. However, these minor differences do at least suggest that whole watershed acidification possibly has had some minimal effect on the myxomycetes associated with forest floor leaf litter, possibly as a result of lowering the pH of the actual substrates upon which these organisms occur. 

Keywords: ecology – litter microhabitat – slime molds – substrate pH

 

6. Screening of lovastatin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) from edible wild mushrooms

Authors: Pushpa H, Priyata H, Nomita Devi K, Onya N, Vijayalakshmi A, Ramesh DH

Recieved: 22 June 2016, Accepted: 14 August 2016, Published: 27 August 2016

The aim of this research was to extract and analyse lovastatin from edible wild mushrooms. Lovastatin is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) enzyme and a competitive inhibitor of the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Seven wild edible mushrooms species were analysed for the production of lovastatin. Bioassays, TLC and UV spectral analysis confirmed that six of the edible wild mushrooms were lovastatin producers, which showed zones of inhibition against Candida albicans, similar Rf values as that of standard and λ max at 238 nm. The production of lovastatin was also confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Schizophyllum commune produced the highest concentration of lovastatin and its occurrence in the mushroom is reported for the first time. This mushroom can also serve as a potential species for genetic engineering and strain improvement studies to enhance the yield of lovastatin. Hence this property of mushrooms could be exploited in food and pharmaceutical industries.  

Keywords: bioassay – HPLC – Schizophyllum commune – TLC – UV spectral analysis

 

7. Colemaniella biligiriense sp. nov. – A new hyphomycetous fungus from Western Ghats of India

Authors: Sengupta S, Dubey R

Recieved: 22 June 2016, Accepted: 20 August 2016, Published: 27 August 2016

An undescribed hyphomycetous fungus was collected during investigations of microfungi on dead leaf materials in Terminalia bellarica (Gaertn.) Roxb. In morphology, new collection resembles Colemaniella which is monotypic. New collection was compared with type species and it is morphologically distinct thus introduced as Colemaniella bilgiriense. New species is illustrated, description is provided and compare with the type species. 

Keywords: Biodiversity – microfungi – morphology – taxonomy

 

8. In vitro antimicrobial potentials of four Ramalina lichen species from Turkey

Authors: Sesal C, Çobanoğlu G, Karaltı İ, Açıkgöz B

Recieved: 21 June 2016, Accepted: 22 August 2016, Published: 28 August 2016

The present study, aiming to explore pharmaceutical potential, appraises the antimicrobial effects of four epiphytic fruticose lichen species, Ramalina canariensis J.Steiner, Ramalina chondrina J.Steiner, Ramalina fastigiata (Pers.) Ach., and Ramalina fraxinea (L.) Ach. In vitro antimicrobial activities of methanol and chloroform extracts against two Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 and Escherichia coli ATCC 2592), two Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923), and the yeast Candida albicans ATCC 90028 were tested with paper disc method, through determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The results indicated that chloroform and methanol extracts of the examined species demonstrated inhibitory activity against the growth of the tested microorganisms in different levels. That activity was more evident in chloroform extracts of Ramalina canariensis and Ramalina chondrina against E. coli than the methanol extracts. The methanol extract of Ramalina canariensis was the most active against C. albicans. 

Keywords: antimicrobial activity – antifungal effect

 

9. Morphological and molecular identification of ascomycetous coprophilous fungi occurring on feces of some bird species.

Authors: Torbati M, Arzanlou M, Bakhshi M

Recieved: 23 June 2016, Accepted: 25 August 2016, Published: 13 September 2016

Coprophilous fungi are a highly diverse assemblage encompassing all major groups of fungi and have important role in decomposition and recycling of animal feces, especially feces of herbivores. The present study was aimed to characterize ascomycetous fungi associated with the feces of some birds including sparrow and crow. Fresh fecal samples were collected in paper bags and taken into the laboratory. About 0.05 g of each sample was transferred on to acidified Potato Dextrose Agar medium (PDA) (containing 2 ml of 20 % lactic acid/liter) and cultures were kept in 25˚C in incubator. Pure cultures were established using single spore or hyphal tip techniques. Then fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics and sequence data from ITS-rDNA region. In this study we report Alternaria alternata, Paraconiothyrium fungicola, Chaetomium murorum, Fusarium solani, Cladosporium herbarum, Sarocladium strictum and Epicoccum nigrum as fungal mycobiota associated with the feces of birds.

Keywords: herbivores – Sparrow – Crow – ITS-rDNA

 

10. A method to stimulate production of extracellular pigments from wood-degrading fungi using a water carrier

Authors: Weber GL, Boonloed A, Naas KM, Koesdjojo MT, Remcho VT, Robinson SC

Recieved: 27 May 2016, Accepted: 30 August 2016, Published: 14 September 2016

Blue-green, red, and yellow pigments produced by the wood-degrading fungi, Chlorociboria aeruginosa/aeruginascens, Scytalidium cuboideum, and Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, respectively, have significant value within the wood products industry, and were recently shown to have potential for use as textile dyes. Such secondary metabolites have the potential to augment or replace synthetic petroleum-based compounds, and to enhance sustainability within various industries. However, production methods for these pigments are currently limited to wood-based malt-agar media and extraction with dichloromethane (DCM). This method of pigment production, while effective, limits quantity, does not yet provide enough material for use in commercial-scale applications, and requires a solvent for extraction. This study looked at the established shake-culture method for growing fungi and determined parameters required for optimizing pigment production (in contrast to increasing growth rate) for the three aforementioned fungi while keeping the pigments dispersed in water. Scytalidium cuboideum reached maximum pigment production in 16 days, S. ganodermophthorum in 24 days, C. aeruginosa in 48 days, and C. aeruginascens in 28 days when grown on a shaker at 110 RPM. The pigments remained dispersed in the medium throughout the test and were able to be used directly in a water carrier and extracted out with DCM. This growth method should enable large-scale production of these pigments suitable for commercialization.

Keywords: Chlorociboria aeruginosa – Chlorociboria aeruginascens – fungal pigment – Scytalidium cuboideum – Scytalidium ganodermophthorum – xylindein

 

11. A new species of Bipolaris from Heliconia rostrata in India

Authors: Singh R, Kumar S

Recieved: 14 April 2016, Accepted: 29 August 2016, Published: 27 September 2016

Bipolaris rostratae, a new foliicolous anamorphic fungus discovered on living leaves of Heliconia rostrata (Heliconiaceae), is described and illustrated. The species was compared with closely related species of Bipolaris and similar fungi recorded on Heliconia spp. This species is different from other Bipolaris spp. reported on Heliconia due to its shorter, thinner and less septate conidia. A key is provided to all species of Bipolaris reported on Heliconia

Keywords: − fungal diversity – morphotaxonomy – Foliicolous fungi – Bipolaris – new species

 

About CREAM Journal

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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