Volume 6 - 2016 - Issue 1

1. Assessment of antioxidant potentials of the wild and domesticated saprophytic edible mushrooms from Tanzania

Authors: Juma I, Mshandete AM, Tibuhwa DD, Kivaisi AK

Recieved: 14 October 2015, Accepted: 28 December 2015, Published: 26 January 2016

Tanzania natural forests harbor several indigenous edible mushrooms that are meagerly exploited due to various reasons including unawareness on their potential values. This study establishes antioxidant potentials of seven wild edible mushroom species, and their two domesticated forms. The investigation used mushroom methanolic extract for antioxidant activities’ determination. A DPPH  (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical was used as a substrate to determine radical scavenging abilities whereas ferrozine was employed to determine ferrous ion chelating abilities. Additionally, quantitative analyses for β-carotene, lycopene, flavonoids, and total phenolic compounds were done using spectrophotometric assay. Mushrooms analysed displayed amazing antioxidant potentials which varied between different species and between the wild and domesticated forms of the same species. The range of EC50 values for DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DRSA) was 0.075  ̶  >0.3 mg/mL, with the strongest and weakest EC50 recorded from P. tenuiculus and the wild Amylosporus sp. IJ-2014, respectively. The range of EC50 values for ferrous ion chelating activity (FICA) was <0.1  ̶  0.455 mg/mL, with the strongest and weakest EC50 noted in domesticated Amylosporus sp. IJ-2014 and L. sajor-caju, correspondingly. The maximum and minimum total phenolic content (TPC) recorded were 537.39 and 160.97 mg GAE/100g, from domesticated Amylosporus sp. IJ-2014 and Laetiporus sp. IJ-2014, respectively. The highest and least quantities of β-carotene (BC) recorded were 48.59 and 5.56 mg/100g, from P. tenuiculus/wild Amylosporus sp. IJ-2014 and P. cystidiosus, respectively. Lycopene contents (LC) ranged from 2.24 to 18.95 mg/100g, with P. cystidiosus and P. tenuiculus having the slightest and peak values, correspondingly. Maximum value for total flavonoid contents (TFl) recorded was 25.27 mg QE/100g from P. tenuiculus whereas the minimum value was 3.71 mg QE/100g from P. cystidiosus. Due to the antioxidant potentials of these mushrooms, people are advised to maximally exploit them for improved nutrition and health.

Keywords: 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydazyl – Antioxidant – Ferrozine – Free radical – Saprophytic edible mushrooms


2. Effect of local substrates on the growth and yield of Pleurotus ostreatus K. in the North West Region, Cameroon

Authors: Kinge TR, Djidjou TAM, Nji TM, Ache NA, Mih AM

Recieved: 01 November 2015, Accepted: 20 January 2016, Published: 05 February 2016

Food security to the ever growing world population is a major challenge of the 21st century. Scientists all over the world are seriously exploring ways and means to bring more food on the table. Cultivation of highly nutritional and medicinal mushrooms on local substrates is one of such effort. In an attempt to bring in our own contribution, locally available substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated at the Mbeng-Adio mushroom cultivation center Banjah Bamenda, Cameroon from March to September 2015. Pleurotus ostreatus was cultivated on different supplemented substrates such as Corn cobs on corn flour T1, Corn cobs on rice bran T2, Iroko on corn flour T3, Iroko on rice bran T4, Eucalyptus on corn flour T5 and Eucalyptus on rice bran T6; supplemented with 1% CaCO3. The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design. The effects of various substrates on comparative growth and yield performance of oyster mushroom were then analyzed. The highest degree of colonization after inoculation (95%) and lowest time from primordia initiation to harvest (3.25days) were obtained in T6. The highest biological yield (0.47 kg/packet), economic yield (0.43 kg/packet) and 75% contamination were obtained with T1. Highest fresh weight (0.47 kg/packet), highest dry weight(0.09 kg/packet), highest average number of primordia/packet(226.3), highest average number of fruiting body/packet(43.25), the highest average weight of individual fruiting body(0.02 kg), highest mean thickness of stipe (12.08) and the highest average number of effective fruiting body/packet(26.25) were obtained in T5. Among many aspects, T5 was found as the best substrate with biological yield (0.47 kg/packet) and economic yield (0.43 kg/packet) followed by T1, T6, T4, and T3, with T2 rejected due to 100% contamination for the production of the oyster mushroom.

Keywords: Basidiomycetes – domestication – macrofungi – Oyster mushroom


3. Three Quinine and Cinchonidine producing Fusarium species from Indonesia

Authors: Hidayat I, Radiastuti N, Rahayu G, Achmadi S, Okane I

Recieved: 23 November 2015, Accepted: 29 January 2016, Published: 09 March 2016

Five endophytic Fusarium isolates from Cinchona calisaya were characterized for their ability to produce cinchona alkaloids, such as quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine. Based on molecular identification using phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence generated from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and the partial elongation factor (EF1–α) gene regions, these isolates were determined as F. incarnatum (strain IPBCC 15.1251 and IPBCC 15.1253), F. solani (strain IPBCC 15.1248 and IPBCC 15.1249) and F. oxysporum (strain IPBCC 15.1250). All strains, except F. solani strain IPBCC 15.1248, were detected capable in producing quinine and cinchonidine by using HPLC and UVvis spectroscopy analyses. Only quinine was detected from the extract of the F. solani strain IPBCC 15.1248. This is the first report of Fusarium species capable of producing quinine and cinchonidine in synthetic liquid medium.

Keywords: endophyte – fungi – malaria – phylogenetic – cinchona alkaloids


4. Preliminary checklist of the macrofungi from northwestern Tunisia

Authors: Ben Hassine Ben Ali M, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 23 December 2015, Accepted: 01 February 2016, Published: 18 March 2016

A preliminary checklist of the species of macrofungi recorded from northwestern Tunisia is provided. The data presented herein, based on collections made over a period of two years, highlight the importance of macrofungal diversity in Tunisia. A total of 331 sporocarps representing 126 species belonging to 11 orders and 40 families were collected. The most important families were the Agaricaceae (16 species), Russulaceae (15 species), Cortinariaceae (9 species), Tricholomotaceae (9 species) and Amanitaceae (8 species). The results obtained contribute to what is known about macrofungal diversity of Tunisia, which remains understudied.

Keywords: Aïn Draham – Quercus – sporocarps – taxonomy


5. Reliable protocols for DNA extraction from freeze-dried macrofungal samples used in molecular macrofungal systematics studies

Authors: Ben Hassine Ben Ali M, Garrett Kluthe B

Recieved: 03 January 2016, Accepted: 27 February 2016, Published: 25 March 2016

Molecular methods to investigate macrofungal communities are faster and more reliable than classical morphological methods. Identification techniques based on total DNA extraction provide excellent identifications. In the present study two techniques of DNA extraction have been tested on four different fungal species. DNA qualities were evaluated, along with DNA suitability for amplification of ITS fragments by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a basidiomycete-specific primer pair (ITS1F-ITS4B) to amplify fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS).

Keywords: Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide – DNA – internal transcribed spacer – macrofungi


6. Molecular characterization of wood ear mushrooms [Auricularia sp.] from Kakamega Forest in Western Kenya

Authors: Onyango BO, Mbaluto CM, Mutuku CS, Otieno DO

Recieved: 18 October 2015, Accepted: 24 March 2016, Published: 30 March 2016

Mushrooms of the genus Auricularia, generally termed wood ear mushrooms are in high demand in Western Kenya due to their numerous medicinal and nutritional properties. Interventions to characterize and conserve the native wood ear mushrooms are necessary to mitigate possible extinction of this valuable bio-resource. Currently, the species richness and bio-geographical relatedness of the Kenyan native wood ears is not fully elucidated. This study used molecular sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the 28S nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nLSU) genes in species delimitation of six strains of wood ear mushrooms native to Kakamega Forest. Phylogeny of both the ITS and nLSU gene regions showed that three strains clustered with Auricularia delicata while the other three strains clustered with Auricularia polytricha at bootstrap support values of above 97%. An intragenomic dichotomy appeared to occur in the Auricularia delicata strains based on the genetic distance of the nLSU gene sequences. The wood ear mushrooms identified from the Kakamega Forest strains were Auricularia delicata and Auricularia polytricha and not Auricularia auricula as previously reported. This rich biodiversity needs further exploration to widen the nutritional and medicinal base of the rural populace who depend on the mushrooms through conservation, cultivation and commercialization activities. 

Keywords: Mushrooms – morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy


About CREAM Journal

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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