Volume 5 - 2015 - Issue 4

1. Preliminary checklist of fungi of Gujarat State, India

Authors: Rajput KS, Koyani RD, Patel HP, Vasava AM, Patel RS, Patel AD, Singh AP

Recieved: 30 June 2015, Accepted: 19 September 2015, Published: 12 October 2015

The state of Gujarat is well known for its contrasting ecoregions such as moist deciduous forests and deserts. This paper deals with the documentation of fungi of Gujarat state. Field studies are carried out since 2007 in different parts of Gujarat to study the wood rot fungi that destroy wood logs in different forests. During these studies we noticed a great lacuna in documented record of fungi occurring in Gujarat. Here we provide, for the first time, a literature-based preliminary checklist of the fungi occurring in the state that is supplemented with our original field work and observations. It includes 334 species of 158 genera belonging to 78 families, which are further categorized into: Ascomycota (59 genera), Basidiomycota (85 genera), Chytridiomycota (2 genera), Oomycota (3 genera), “Zygomycota” (4 genera) and Myxomycota (5 genera). Our extensive field work from January 2014 to January 2015 resulted in the collection of 98 fungal species out of which 22 species are new record for Gujarat.

Keywords: Biodiversity – mycobiota – species list – taxonomy


2. Wild mushrooms from Tanzania: Characterization and importance to the rural communities

Authors: Chelela BL, Chacha M and Matemu A

Recieved: 10 June 2015, Accepted: 17 September 2015, Published: 20 October 2015

Tanzania has a rich diversity of wild mushrooms, both edible and inedible which are used as food and medicinal resources. Despite of their nutritional and medicinal importance, few studies have been done on their characterization. This study was carried out to characterize some wild mushrooms collected from Iringa and Njombe regions in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania in January, 2014. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on edibility, local (vernacular) names, indigenous knowledge and its importance to the rural communities. Indigenous characterization was done in the field, based on the key features (colour, shape and association with other plants), and photographs were taken. Conventional characterization was done using different key references, manuals, monographs and databases. Only five wild mushrooms were reported to be edible on the basis of indigenous information. Local names were found to be very important distinguishing factor between edible and poisonous mushrooms. On the other hand, conventional characterization revealed 7 edible species (Russulaceae-4 and Cantharelaceae-3), 11 inedible species (Boletaceae-4, Polyporaceae-3, Russulaceae-2, Suillaceae-1 and Agaricaceae-1), 2 deadly poisonous (both Amanitaceae) and 4 of unknown edibility (Russulaceae-2, Suillaceae-1 and Boletaceae-1). Most of the species of wild mushrooms were found to share the same ecological habitat. Only edible wild mushrooms were reported to be of importance as opposed to inedible species. Mushroom characterization proved to be a crucial distinctive criterion for distinguishing between edible and inedible species. Taxonomic studies have been shown to be important for accurate classification of wild mushrooms, thus preventing the waste of some edible species and human deaths from the consumption of poisonous ones.

Keywords: Benna – conventional – characterization – Hehe – indigenous – Tanzania – wild mushrooms


3. A Checklist of Coprophilous Agarics of India

Authors: Amandeep K, Atri NS, Munruchi K

Recieved: 10 June 2015, Accepted: 17 September 2015, Published: 20 October 2015

This checklist consists of 135 species belonging in 27 genera and 10 families of the Order Agaricales, Class Agaricomycetes, and Phylum Basidiomycota. The families, genera and species have been arranged alphabetically. The status and taxonomic placement of each taxon included in the list has been updated as per the information available on the Index Fungorum/MycoBank. At the family level, Psathyrellaceae has the highest number of coprophilous species (46) reported from India, followed by Agaricaceae and Bolbitiaceae (29 spp. each) and Strophariaceae (20 spp.). The ten most represented coprophilous genera are Conocybe (23 spp.),Panaeolus (19 spp.), Coprinopsis (14 spp.), Psilocybe (13 spp.), Agaricus (9 spp.), Lepiota and Psathyrella (6 spp. each), Coprinellus and Coprinus (5 spp. each) and Bolbitius (4 spp.). The geographical distribution of the species covers 13 States (Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal) and 2 Union Territories (Chandigarh, New Delhi) of India. The relevant information is based on the survey of dung localities in Punjab state during the period 2007-2011 and original information contained in 97 research papers. The checklist is an attempt to provide updated information regarding the diversity of coprophilous agarics in India.

Keywords: Agaricales – Agaricomycetes – Basidiomycota – biodiversity – dung – Punjab


4. Carboxymethyl cellulose as C-source for lipid accumulation by oleaginous Yeast Candida orthopsilosis

Authors: Kanti A, Sudiana IM

Recieved: 16 June 2015, Accepted: 15 September 2015, Published: 23 October 2015

The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a carbon source for lipid accumulation by oleaginous yeasts: Candida orthopsilosis Y09GS34, Candida oleophila Y09GS48, and Lipomyces sp. 10381. Lipid accumulation in the cells was determined by the Nile Red method and lipid composition was identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). During the incubation period, CMC-ase activities were monitored to determine the hydrolytic activities of oleaginous yeasts. The results of the study showed that the cellulase activity of all strains tested (Y09GS34, Y09GS48, and 10381) was higher in N-limited medium with 2% CMC, namely 1.193, 0.633 and 1.233 units per hour, respectively. Y09GS34 showed the highest lipid accumulation (63.75% per cell dry weight). The lipid composition of Candida orthopsilosis (Y09GS34) included palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, implying that Candida orthopsilosis (Y09GS34) could utilize cellulose as a carbon source for lipid accumulation. Thus, our study demonstrates that cellulose can be used as a carbon source for lipid accumulation by oleaginous yeasts, and Y09GS34 has the potential to be used for bio-fuel research.

Keywords: cellulose – CMC – lipid accumulation


5. Perichaena calongei (Trichiales): a new record of Myxomycetes from Brazil

Authors: Araújo JC, Lado C, Xavier-Santos S

Recieved: 07 May 2015, Accepted: 16 October 2015, Published: 26 October 2015

During the development of taxonomic and ecological studies of the myxobiota in the National Forest (Floresta Nacional - FloNa) of Silvânia, State of Goiás, Brazil, sporocarps of Perichaena calongei were found after 52 days of moist chamber incubation of decaying leaves and bark of living tree colonized by bryophytes. This species, described five years ago from the arid areas of Argentina, constitute the first record for Brazil and for the Cerrado biome.

Keywords: Amoebozoa – Biodiversity – Brazilian Savannah – moist chamber culture – Myxobiota – slime molds


6. The effect of continuous contamination of soil with heavy metals on growth of Pleurotus tuber-regium

Authors: Anyakorah CI, Jinadu T

Recieved: 15 June 2015, Accepted: 20 October 2015, Published: 26 October 2015

The effect of continuous contamination of soil with Cu, Fe and Mg on growth of Pleurotus tuber-regium and its implication for bioremediation was studied. Pleurotus tuber-regium sclerotia were grown in soil contaminated with different concentrations (50, 55 & 60ppm) of CuSO4, FeSO4 and MgSO47H2O respectively. Sporophore emergence and fresh weight were determined. Dried soils and sporophore were digested with acid and analyzed for the metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that concentration of Cu and Fe in soil and sporophore increased with contamination level and ranged between 203.5-288.0 ppm and 47.0-57.5 ppm in Cu; 1019.0-1950.0 ppm and 132.5-328.5 ppm in Fe respectively. Sporophore emergence was delayed in Fe contaminated soil (33-35 days) compared to Cu (16-25 days) and no sporophore was produced at 60ppm FeSO4. Fe was the most bio-accumulated metal, but adversely affected P. tuber-regium growth. Bioaccumulation factor for Mg, Fe and Cu ranged between 0.94-1.01, 0.11 - 0.17 and 0.17 - 0.23 respectively, which is an indication that P. tuber-regium may not be efficient in bioremediation of these metals in a continuously contaminated soil at the stated concentration.

Keywords: Bioaccumulation – mushroom – pollution – Sclerotium – Sporophore


7. A checklist of Lichens of Rajasthan, India

Authors: Sinha GP, Gupta P, Kar R, Joseph S

Recieved: 06 July 2015, Accepted: 14 August 2015, Published: 31 October 2015

The paper presents an updated list of 90 species of lichens from the state of Rajasthan, India. Three species marked by an asterisk (*) viz. Malmidea psychotrioides (Kalb & Lücking)Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch, Staurothele rugulosa (A. Massal.) Arnold and Willeya diffractella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. are new records for India while 35 species marked by double asterisks (**) are new records for Rajasthan.

Keywords: Ascomycetes – new records – taxonomy – Willeya


8. Description of Pseudopestalotiopsis kubahensis sp. nov., a new species of microfungi from Kubah National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia

Authors: Lateef AA, Sepiah M, Bolhassan MH

Recieved: 24 June 2015, Accepted: 16 October 2015, Published: 03 November 2015

A survey on the diversity and distribution of microfungi was carried out, during which a distinct Pestalotiopsis-like taxa was isolated from green leaves of Macaranga sp. from Kubah National Park, Sarawak. The phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the internal transcribed spacer gene region (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of the rDNA shows this species to form a distinct clade from the Pestalotiopsis, and cluster with the genus Pseudopestalotiopsis, a new genus which was recently carved out from the Pestalotiopsis. This species differs from closely related Pseudopestalotiopsis species such as Ps. cocos, Ps. indica and Ps. theae by its conidial characters such as its unknobbed apical appendages and shorter basal appendages. The new microfungal species, Ps. kubahensis is hereby described based on morphological and molecular data as the fifth species in the genus Pseudopestalotiopsis.

Keywords: ITS – Macaranga – Pestalotiopsis – saprophytic


9. Diversity and distribution of myxomycetes in the western part of India, with special reference to the state of Gujarat

Authors: Vasava AM, Koyani RD, Singh AP and Rajput KS

Recieved: 24 June 2015, Accepted: 16 October 2015, Published: 08 November 2015

The occurrence and diversity of myxomycetes was surveyed in the state of Gujarat, western part of India. Earlier studies of the diversity of myxomycetes in Gujarat are almost completely lacking except for reports of the occurrence of Diderma cingulatum Nann.-Brem, Lepidoderma effusum Rokade & Nanir, and Licea elloriana Nanir & Rokade by earlier workers. In the present study, 12 species from 10 genera were collected, of which seven species belonging to six genera (Arcyria cinerea [Bull.] Pers., Arcyria denudata Fr., Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa [O.F. Müll.] T. Macbr., Cribraria cancellata [Batsch] Nann.-Bremek., Fuligo septica [L.] F.H. Wigg, Hemitrichia calyculata [Speg.] M. L Farr and Stemonitis axifera [Bull.] T. Macbr.) are reported for the first time from Gujarat. Further studies are warranted since Gujarat is known for its wide variety of climatic conditions and vegetation, ranging from moist deciduous forests to pure desert condition. There are likely to a number of additional species, and more extensive studies are required to complete the list of myxomycetes occurring within the state.

Keywords: Acellular slime moulds – diversity – Gujarat – myxobiota – protozoa – species list


10. Sporidesmium bilgiriense - A new species of microfungi from Western Ghats of India

Authors: Dubey R, Sengupta S

Recieved: 24 June 2015, Accepted: 20 October 2015, Published: 15 November 2015

A new species of Sporidesmium was discovered during a survey of micro fungi in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka. The new species, Sporidesmium bilgiriense is distinguished from other species of Sporidesmium by having conidia with an apical nodal structure.

Keywords: Biligiri Rangaswamy − taxonomy − biodiversity − new species


11. Frequency of Marine Fungi on Animal Substrates along West Coast of India

Authors: Nambiar GR, Raveendran K

Recieved: 05 May 2015, Accepted: 01 November 2015, Published: 15 November 2015

The examination of decaying animal substrates collected from the beaches along west coast of India resulted in the identification of 22 species of marine fungi comprising 13 ascomycetes, 1 basidiomycete and 8 asexual fungi. Matsusporium tropicalis  (14.63%) and Trichocladium achrasporum (12.20%) were most frequently encountered.

Keywords: calcareous – incubation period – isolation


12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophyte fungal association in some plants of Tripura, North-East India

Authors: Debnath A, Karmakar P, Debnath S, Roy Das A, Saha AK, Das P

Recieved: 01 May 2015, Accepted: 30 October 2015, Published: 16 November 2015

Mycorrhizal fungi are ecologically significant because they form relationships with the host plants and provide a better knowledge about the nutrition and growth of the plants. The present investigation was carried out in three sites to examine mycorrhizal colonization in twenty plants. Among the twenty plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal and dark septate endophytes (DSE) colonization was found in 18 and 11 species, respectively. Dual association of AM fungi and DSE were found in 10 plants. The presence of only vesicles and aseptate hyphae were observed in Alternanthera dentata and Bambusa vulgaris. The arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (%) was highest recorded in Eupatorium odoratum. Root length with DSE fungal structures (%) was maximum in A. dentata. A total of 16 AM fungal species was isolated from the three soil samples. There were five, eleven and eight species of AM fungi were found from three sites belonging to the spore of Acaulospora, Ambispora, Diversispora, Funneliformis, Glomus, Paraglomus, Rhizophagus and Sclerocystis. This study revealed the wide spread occurrence of AM fungi and DSE fungal association in the studied ecosystem.

Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization – dark septate endophyte colonization – plants


13. Inocybe (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) in Kharkiv forest-steppe, Eastern Ukraine

Authors: Prylutskyi OV

Recieved: 11 September 2015, Accepted: 20 November 2015, Published: 04 December 2015

In this paper, the list of Inocybe of Kharkiv forest-steppe (Eastern Ukraine) is provided. A brief history of Inocybe investigations in North-Eastern Ukraine is described. Sixteen species and infraspecies taxa of Inocybe are reported in this territory based on own data and literature references. Inocybe lacera var. helobia Kuyper and Inocybe langei R. Heim are reported in the territory of Ukraine for the first time. Original descriptions, drawing of key microstructures, and data on the material examined of these species are given.

Keywords: agarics – Basidiomycota – diversity – gilled fungi – micromorphology – mycobiota


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Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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