Volume 11 - 2021
29. Plant protection properties of the Plant Growth-Promoting Fungi (PGPF): Mechanisms and potentiality
El-Maraghy SS et al. (2021)
28. DNA-based species identification of Greek macromycetes
Lagiotis G et al. (2021)
26. CRISPR/Cas9: Contemporary designer nucleases for efficient genome editing in phytopathogenic fungi
Harishchandra DL et al. (2021)
25. Morphological and growth characteristics of Clathrus ruber P.Micheli ex Pers. vegetative mycelium in vitro condition
Sukhomlyn M et al. (2021)
24. Mycobiome sequencing and analysis of the assemblages of fungi associated with leaf litter on the Fernow Experimental Forest in the Central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia
Alshuwaili FE et al. (2021)
23. New records of Amanita citrinoannulata and A. pakistanica (Amanitaceae) from India
Mehmood T et al. (2021)
22. Absorption efficiency of Bromophenol Blue and Congo Red using King oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)
Evyan YCY et al. (2021)
Volume 5 - 2015 - Issue 3
1. Antimicrobial activity of 2-Propanol crude extract from lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr.ex.Nyl.) Hale, collected from Eastern Ghats, India
Authors: Anjali DB, Mohabe S, Reddy AM and Nayaka S
Recieved: 09 March 2015, Accepted: 18 May 2015, Published: 10 July 2015
The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of 2-Propanol extract of Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale, against each ten bacterial and fungal pathogens. Secondary compound of the species was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and antimicrobial activity was carried out by using Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion method. The extract was found more effective against ten bacterial and eight fungal pathogens. The highest zones of inhibition in bacterial pathogens were noted against Escherichia coli (14.66 ± 0.57), Bacillus subtilis (13.0 ± 2.99), Salmonella abony (12.33 ± 2.51) and Corynebacterium rubrum (11.33 ± 0.57) followed by lowest inhibition zones were recorded in Streptococcus pyogenes (9.66 ± 0.57), Bacillus cereus (8.66 ± 1.15) and Streptomycin was taken as standard control found more effective against all the bacterial pathogens. In case of fungal pathogens the highest zones of inhibition were noted against Aspergillus flavus (10.0 ± 1.0) followed by Colletotrichum falcatum, Fusarium oxysporumand Penicillium chrysogenum (7.33 ± 0.57 each), Trichoderma lignorum (7.0 ± 1.53) and Fusarium moniliforme (6.0 ± 5.2) while commercially available synthetic antifungal drug Ketoconazole was taken as standard control found more effective against eight fungal pathogens. The study revealed that extracts obtained from P. tinctorum are having potential compounds which in turn useful to control human pathogenic microorganisms.
Keywords: Macrolichen – antibacterial – antifungal activity – disc diffusion – bio-prospection
2. Diversity and anticancer activity of endophytic fungi associated with the medicinal plant Saraca asoca
Authors: Jinu MV, Jayabaskaran C
Recieved: 19 February 2015, Accepted: 17 July 2015, Published: 31 July 2015
Cancer remains a major health issue worldwide due to the high rate of its morbidity and mortality. Search for tumor selective, novel anticancer compounds with lesser side-effects remains a major focus of cancer research. Endophytic fungi, owing to their chemical diversity, are an attractive source of bioactive metabolites. In the present study, we have explored the endophytic fungal population associated with a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Saraca asoca for their cytotoxic potentialities. Taxonomic identities and phylogenetic relationships of the fungal isolates were investigated using molecular techniques. 37 fungal species obtained from S. asoca were grouped into 22 genera of which the most dominant genus was Camarosporium followed by Pestalotiopsis and Fusarium. Fermentation extracts of all fungal isolates were assessed for their cytotoxic effects towards three human cancer cell lines, HeLa, HepG2 and PC3. 18 fungi exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities among which Pestalotiopsis sp. 6 exhibited the most significant cytotoxicity towards all three cell lines used. Apoptosis inducing effect of Pestalotiopsis sp. 6 ethyl acetate culture extract (PS6) on HeLa cell line was further assessed by in vitro assays. PS6 induced mitochondria dependent apoptotic cell death in HeLa cells in a dose dependent manner. The study suggests these fungal extracts to be potential sources of secondary metabolites which can serve as promising lead molecules for the development of novel anti-cancer agents.
Keywords: Apoptosis – cytotoxicity – secondary metabolites
Authors: Pandit G
Recieved: 18 February 2015, Accepted: 30 June 2015, Published: 31 July 2015
The paper includes 234 species in 61 genera belonging to 30 families reported from the high level Ferricretes and basalt mesas, of the North Western Ghats of Maharashtra. The average percentage of the lichen species in Maharashtra on high level Ferricretes is 22.91 % and on the basalt Mesas is 0.682 %. Of these 234 species, 50 species are new to science, reported from these plateau areas and 25 species have their type locality in and around the plateaus.
Keywords: basalt – laterite – lichenized fungi – rocky outcrops
4. Potential role of host tree species in determining the composition of polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst.(GLPS)
Authors: Singh S, Harsh NSK, Gupta PK
Recieved: 12 February 2015, Accepted: 28 July 2015, Published: 21 August 2015
Ganoderma lucidum is a basidiomycetous white rot fungus which has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries particularly in countries such as China, Japan and Korea. Several classes of bioactive substances have been isolated and identified from basidiocarp, mycelia and spores of G. lucidum, such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, nucleosides, sterols, fatty acids, protein and alkaloids. One of the major pharmacological properties of G.lucidum is antitumor activity and polysaccharides (GLPS) are the main component responsible for this property. In this paper, the possible role of host tree species in determining the composition of polysaccharides (GLPS) was examined. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides (GLPS) from different host tree species has not been performed. Fruiting bodies were collected from nine host tree species from different regions of India and examined for their polysaccharide composition. These fruit bodies were analyzed and compared on the basis of Gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The result showed the fruit body from Dalbergia sissoo was most potential for GLPS production, as it was composed of all six tested monosaccharides, including rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, fructose, glucose and mannose. It also showed the presence of intense host-dependent variability among isolates.
Keywords: anti-tumor activity – Dalbergia sissoo – gas liquid chromatography – host dependent variability – medicinal mushroom
5. Diversity of Gasteroid Fungi (Basidiomycota) in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Jorhat, Assam, India
Authors: Gogoi G, Vipin P
Recieved: 20 April 2015, Accepted: 23 July 2015, Published: 30 August 2015
Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (HGWLS), Jorhat, Assam is mainly famous for Hollock Gibbon and other six primate species found in the sanctuary. A total of 22 gasteroid fungal species belongs to 9 genera, 4 families, 4 orders, 2 sub-classes and 1 class, have been found in the study site. The family Agaricaceae (8 spp.) is highly dominant in the study site followed by Phallaceae (7 spp.), Geastraceae (4 spp.), and Sclerodermataceae (3 spp.). The name of the gasteroid fungi species along with their occurrence percentage are Phallus indusiatus (9.46), Phallus duplicatus (3.55), Phallus merulinus (1.42), Phallus cinnabarinus (1.18), Phallus atrovolvatus (0.95), Mutinus bambusinus (17.73), Clathrus delicatus (0.47) belong to stinkhorns; Scleroderma cepa (0.71), Scleroderma verrucosa (2.36), Scleroderma citrinum (3.55) belong to earthballs; Calvatia rubroflava (0.95), Calvatia cyathiformis (0.71), Bovista longispora (5.91), Bovista plumbea (3.31), Bovista dermoxantha (10.64), Morganella pyriformis (1.18) belong to puffballs; Geastrum schweinitzii (7.09), Geastrum lloydianum (4.96), Geastrum saccatum (13.0), Geastrum coronatum (4.02) are earthstars and Cyathus striatus (3.07), Cyathus hookeri (3.78) are bird's nest fungi.
Keywords: Distribution – dominant – ecosystem – macro fungi – species richness
6. Ecology, Distribution Perspective, Economic Utility and Conservation of Coprophilous Agarics (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) Occurring in Punjab, India
Authors: Amandeep K, Atri NS, Munruchi K
Recieved: 20 April 2015, Accepted: 23 July 2015, Published: 07 September 2015
This paper includes the results of eco-taxonomic studies of coprophilous mushrooms in Punjab, India. The information is based on the survey to dung localities of the state during the various years from 2007-2011. A total number of 172 collections have been observed, growing as saprobes on dung of various domesticated and wild herbivorous animals in pastures, open areas, zoological parks, and on dung heaps along roadsides or along village ponds, etc. High coprophilous mushrooms’ diversity has been established and a number of rare and sensitive species recorded with the present study. The observed collections belong to 95 species spread over 20 genera and 07 families of the order Agaricales. The present paper discusses the distribution of these mushrooms in Punjab among different seasons, regions, habitats, and growing habits along with their economic utility, habitat management and conservation. This is the first attempt in which various dung localities of the state has been explored systematically to ascertain the diversity, seasonal availability, distribution and ecology of coprophilous mushrooms. The study has shown that dung is an important substrate which serves as a favorable niche for the growth of a variety of mushrooms.
Keywords: Abundance – biodiversity – herbivorous dung – seasonal availability
Authors: Gogoi G, Parkash V
Recieved: 20 April 2015, Accepted: 23 July 2015, Published: 10 September 2015
This paper presents a description and an illustration of one hitherto undescribed species of stinkhorn under family Phallaceae, genus Lysurus Fr., named as Lysurus habungianus sp. nov. collected from short grassland under Bamboo plantation of Habungia village, Jorhat District, Assam, India.
Keywords: Dendrogram – macrofungi – Phallaceae – phylogeny – stinkhorn – undescribed
8. Ethnomycological Survey of Macrofungi Utilized by Gaddang Communities in Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines
Authors: Lazo CRM, Kalaw SP, De Leon AM
Recieved: 22 May 2015, Accepted: 14 July 2015, Published: 10 September 2015
A questionnaire and interview approach was used to determine the indigenous beliefs and the species of macrofungi utilized by Gaddang communities in Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. Ten species were utilized by the Gaddangs; however, only seven species of fungi were collected and identified based on their morphological characteristics. These were Auricularia auricula, Auricularia fuscosuccinea, Schizophyllum commune, Volvariella volvacea, Lentinus sp., Pleurotus sp.,and Polyporus sp.The Gaddang communities also have indigenous beliefs regarding the growing and collection of macrofungi, such as the occurrence of spontaneous lightning induces mushroom growth and asking permission of spirits before collecting. Their medicinal practices were also documented in this study.
Keywords: Gaddang communities – indigenous beliefs – mushroom – “tarulok”
Authors: Jacob JKS, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG
Recieved: 11 May 2015, Accepted: 30 August 2015, Published: 17 September 2015
Pleurotus, commonly known as oyster mushroom, is a wood rotting mushroom that naturally grows on decaying logs. This mushroom has been cultivated using saw dust based substrate formulation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the growth performance of Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus djamor and Pleurotus salmoneostramineus on coconut water gelatin and different physical factors such as pH, aeration, illumination and temperature conditions. Coconut water gelatin supported the mycelial growth of the three species as indicated by the luxuriant mycelial growth. Pleurotus citrinopileatus recorded fastest and shortest mycelial growth (90mm) after six days of incubation while Pleurotus salmoneostramineus showed slower mycelial growth (63.55mm), thick mycelial density and longest incubation period of eight days. Moreover, the three species grew best in pH 8.0, incubated either sealed or unsealed, both dark and lighted conditions at room temperature.
Keywords: coconut water – growth performance – physical factors – Pleurotus
10. Studies on biodiversity of leaf litter fungi of Central Luzon State University and evaluation of their enzyme producing ability
Authors: Waing KGD, Abella EA, Kalaw SP, Waing FP, Galvez CT
Recieved: 30 June 2015, Accepted: 12 September 2015, Published: 29 September 2015
Fungi are essential part of the ecosystem because they play an important role in the decomposition of organic materials such as plant residues. Fungi feed on dead organic matter and return the nutrients back into the soil. However, the occurrence of fungi growing on leaf litters which are responsible for decomposition are not yet fully studied and documented. Thus, in this study the different species of fungi present in leaf litters of three species of forest trees namely, rain tree (Samanea), orchid tree (Clitorea) and paper tree (Gmelina) were isolated and identified. These fungal species could be potentially used to hasten the decomposition of enormous leaf litters of forest trees. The isolated fungal species were screened for their ability to produce cellulase. A total of 30 species of phyllosphere fungi were isolated namely: Absidia sp., Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. japonicus, A. niger, A. niveus, A. tamarii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Curvularia lunata, Eurotium repens, Fusarium acuminatum, F. semitectum, three unidentified species of Fusarium, Monascus ruber, Mucor piriformis, Neosartorya fischeri, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. decumbens, P. hirsutum, P. implicatum, P. olsonii, P. oxalicum, P. purpurogenum, two unidentified species of Penicillium, Rhizopus microsporus and Trichoderma hamatum. Out of 30 species of phyllosphere fungi isolated, 22 can degrade cellulose as shown by the formation of clear zone around the colony of the organism. The five species of fungi that produced the largest clear zone were P. citrinum, P. olsonii, P. purpurogenum, A. niveus and P. chrysogenum.
Keywords: carboxymethylcellulose – cellulase – CLSU – phyllosphere
11. Antifungal activity of fungicides and plant extracts against yellow sigatoka disease causing Mycosphaerella musicola
Authors: Aman M, Rai VR
Recieved: 06 March 2015, Accepted: 12 September 2015, Published: 30 September 2015
Mycosphaerella musicola causes yellow sigatoka disease in banana plantations, and affects overall yield and quality of the fruit. Synthetic fungicides are used to control disease. An integrated approach by using plant based extracts and synthetic fungicides can control the disease efficiently by reducing the usage of fungicides. In vitro studies were carried out to test methanolic extracts of ten plants belonging to seven different families having previous reports on antimicrobial activity against Mycosphaerella musicola, methanolic extracts of two plants showed significant antifungal activity as well as significant inhibition of spore germination in spore germination inhibition assay. All eight fungicides exhibited inhibitory action on M. musicola in poison food technique, where as MIC range of each fungicide varied significantly. The results revealed that integrated disease management by using efficient plant extracts and effective fungicides can control the disease and the pathogen in fields efficiently.
Keywords: Antifungal activity – fungicides – Mycosphaerella musicola – plant extracts – spore germination inhibition assay