Volume 5 - 2015 - Issue 1


1. Influence of geographical location and growth condition on some morphological and nutritional parameters in Pleurotus tuber-regium species as revealed by morphometric and proximate analyses

Authors: Anyakorah CI, Taiwo IA, Unwana-Abasi JI

Recieved: 10 July 2014, Accepted: 20 December 2014, Published: 16 January 2015

The investigation was conducted to assess the influence of geographical location and growth under two different light conditions on some morphological and nutritional attributes of Pleurotus tuber-regium mushroom. The mushroom sclerotium was collected from four different locations in Nigeria, planted in loamy soils and kept under complete darkness and 12 h daylight/12 h dark conditions respectively. The results showed that light condition significantly (p<0.001) influenced height and fresh weight (p<0.01). Mushrooms grown under complete darkness were taller compared to those grown under 12 h daylight/12h darkness. Furthermore, mushrooms collected from the South (Enugu 1) were the tallest as compared to those obtained from the North (Kano). The range in the values obtained for stipe length, pileus diameter and fresh weight under 12h day/ light condition was 5.6+1.47 - 8.0+1.44cm, 4.7+2.08 - 6.9+2.18cm and 18.4+3.79 - 22.3+3.79g respectively. Corresponding values for those produced under complete darkness were 6.8+0.44 – 9.2+0.47cm, 3.8+1.11 - 5.0+1.75 and 14.0+2.25 – 17.0+3.28g respectively. The level of protein, fat, fiber and moisture varied from locations. In view of the dietary and economic importance of mushrooms, it is apparent that location and growth conditions could be of importance when considering nutritional and morphological attributes of the fungus.

Keywords: dendrogram – distribution – light – morphology – mushroom – nutrient – sclerotium

 

2. Synergistic interaction between Fusarium solani and Ganoderma lucidum, two root pathogens of Dalbergia sissoo

Authors: Bhatia P, Harsh NSK, Dubey RC

Recieved: 22 August 2014, Accepted: 20 December 2014, Published: 17 January 2015

In nature different pathogens cause diseases on a common host plant which may develop simultaneously and can infect the same host at a time. Co-occurring pathogens may affect each other, through antagonism and/or synergism. In Dalbergia sissoo, Ganoderma lucidum and Fusarium solani are two serious pathogens which cause root rot and vascular wilt diseases, respectively and are responsible for large scale mortality of this tree species. These two pathogens were tested to find out whether they live in a synergistic way or inhibit one another. Results showed that these two pathogens can co-exist on the same host plant at the same time and cause disease in Dalbergia sissoo independently. None of these fungi affect adversely the growth of other fungus; instead they favour the growth of each other.

Keywords: Antagonism – disease – mortality – root rot – vascular wilt

 

3. Schiffnerula dioscoriae sp. nov. from Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala

Authors: Nair NN, Mathew KL, Swapna S

Recieved: 03 November 2014, Accepted: 24 December 2014, Published: 26 January 2015

A new species of the genus Schiffnerula on Dioscorea wallichii, collected from Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India, is described and illustrated in detail.

Keywords: Black mildew – India – new species – Western Ghats

 

4. In-vitro antifungal and anticancer potential of Xylaria curta fruiting body fractions against human fungal pathogen and cancer cell lines

Authors: Ramesh V, Santosh K, Pavunraj M, Karunakaran C, Rajendran A

Recieved: 04 November 2014, Accepted: 18 December 2014, Published: 29 January 2015

In the present study, the dried fruiting bodies were extracted and fractionized by column chromatography method. Fractions were tested for anticancer and antifungal activity against human cancer cell lines and fungal strain respectively. Phytochemical analysis was performed by colour tests to characterize the putative compounds responsible for this bioactivity. Among the various fraction, fraction D was found to be the best for the bioactive principles from Xylaria curta. Fraction D showed a maximum inhibition zone of 22.9 mm against Candida albicans and also had significant cytotoxic activity of 58.5% against A-549 human Lung cancer cell lines at a concentration of 60 μg/mL. These results indicate that partially purified extract of Xylaria curta as source of eco friendly potent pharmaceutical new drugs for controlling human fungal pathogens and human cancer cell lines.

Keywords: Ascomycete fungi – bioactivity – human cancer cell lines – MTT assay – partial purification

 

5. Taxonomic study on the coprophilous mushrooms from Punjab, India: new records of family Agaricaceae

Authors: Amandeep K, Atri NS, Munruchi K

Recieved: 04 November 2014, Accepted: 18 December 2014, Published: 30 January 2015

This paper deals with the taxonomy of nine species, namely Agaricus cupreobrunneus, A. halophilus, Coprinus comatus var. caprimammillatus, C. cordisporus, Lepiota epicharis var. occidentalis, L. thrombophora, L. subincarnata, L. xanthophylla and Leucocoprinus straminellus, belonging to the family Agaricaceae of the order Agaricales. The collections were made from various dung localities of Punjab state in India. All these taxa are described along with their dung sources, illustrated with line drawings of morphological and anatomical features and compared with similar taxa. Out of these, Agaricus halophilus, Coprinus comatus var. caprimammillatus and C. cordisporus are the first time records from India. Agaricus cupreobrunneus, Lepiota epicharis var. occidentalis, L. thrombophora, L. subincarnata, L. xanthophylla and Leucocoprinus straminellus are new records for North India. Habitat photographs of all the taxa are given. A key to aid in determining their genus is also presented.

Keywords: Agaricus – Coprinus – herbivorous dung – Lepiota – Leucocoprinus – taxonomy

 

6. Three new records of black mildew fungi from India

Authors: Bhise MR, Patil CR, Salunkhe CB

Recieved: 22 November 2014, Accepted: 31 December 2014, Published: 14 February 2015

The present paper deals with three new records of black mildew fungi belonging to Meliolales, collected on different host plants from Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra, India. These are, Meliola luzonensis, M. sideroxyli and M. ventilaginicola reported for the first time from India on hitherto unreported hosts.

Keywords: Meliola – Mahabaleshwar – Maharashtra – Western Ghats

 

7. Proximate composition and antioxidant activity of Panaeolus antillarium, a wild coprophilous mushroom

Authors: Dulay RMR, Cabalar AC, De Roxas MJB, Concepcion JMP, Cruz NE, Esmeralda M, Jimenez N, Aguilar JC, De Guzman EJ, Santiago JQ, Samoy JR, Bustillos RG, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG

Recieved: 08 November 2014, Accepted: 31 January 2015, Published: 15 February 2015

Panaeolus antillarium remains to be underutilized mycological resource in the Philippines. Thus, this present work established the nutraceutical and funtional attributes of this coprophilous mushroom. The mycochemical and proximate nutrient composition were analyzed and its antioxidant activity as affected by the different media and pH levels was studied. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were used as parameters for antioxidant property. Extracts of P. antillarium contained appreciable amounts of alkaloids, saponins, and cardiac glycosides. Nutrient composition analysis revealed that mycelia had higher amounts of crude fiber (7.05 ± 0.04), crude fat (1.96 ± 0.06), moisture (11.85 ± 0.01) and total carbohydrate (61.12 ± 0.01) than its corresponding fruiting bodies. On the other hand, the fruiting bodies had higher amounts of ash (5.26 ± 0.03), crude protein (16.77 ± 0.01), and energy value (321.49 ± 0.04) than its mycelia. Potato broth significantly had the highest mean volume loss (14.5 ± 2.50 ml), mycelia weight (4.5 ± 0.65 g), scavenging activity (16.06 ± 0.51%) and phenolic content (25.07 ± 0.02 mg AAE/g sample). However, varying pH levels of potato broth did not significantly affect the mycelial growth, but pH 7.0 recorded the highest scavenging activity (17.39 ± 0.19%) and total phenolic content (25.11 ± 0.01 mg AAE/g sample). Herein, these significant data suggest that P. antillarium is another potential source of substances and nutrients with functional attributes such as antioxidant which strongly infuenced by different media and pH levels.

Keywords: Panaeolus antillarium – proximate analysis – mycochemicals – antioxidant – coprophilous mushrooms

 

8. Elephant dung-inhabiting macrofungi in the Western Ghats

Authors: Karun NC, Sridhar KR

Recieved: 17 October 2014, Accepted: 12 January 2015, Published: 15 February 2015

Six species of macrofungi in five genera were documented growing on elephant dung located in the Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary of Western Ghats of Karnataka (Conocybe pubescens, Coprinus patouillardii, Panaeolus fimicola, Podosordaria elephanti, Psilocybe coprophila and P. fimetaria). Among these, Coprinus patouillardii, Panaeolus fimicola and Psilocybe fimetaria are the first record, while Conocybe pubescens is new record on elephant dung in the Western Ghats. Including the present study, so far a total of 31 species of macrofungi have been reported on elephant dung of the Western Ghats. Some of the elephant dung-inhabiting macrofungi were also found on other herbivore dung in the Western Ghats and elsewhere. Future inventories on macrofungi inhabiting on dung of domestic/tamed, conserved and wild elephants to fill our knowledge gap on their diversity and to open up scope to harness their bioactive potential.

Keywords: herbivore dung – Karnataka – macrofungi – Western Ghats – wildlife sanctuary

 

9. Prillieuxina aeglicola sp. nov. (ascomycota), a new black mildew fungus from Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Gautam AK

Recieved: 24 June 2014, Accepted: 04 February 2015, Published: 02 March 2015

A black mildew infection was observed on leaves of Aegle marmelos from Himachal Pradesh, India. The fungus as a species of Prillieuxina was characterized by substraight, branched hyphae without appressoria and setae; orbicular thyriothecia and brown uniseptate ascospores. Prillieuxina and its species are host specific fungi and no earlier reports on A. marmelos. Therefore new species is described and illustrated in the present paper based on morphology and specificity of host association.

Keywords: Black mildew – India –new species – Prillieuxina – taxonomy  

 

10. First records of Monoblepharella taylori Sparrow (Monoblepharidales) in Brazil

Authors: Rocha JRS, Sousa NDC, Macêdo MAM, Saraiva LS, Santos LA, Sousa ALM, Costa MFV, Sales PCL, Cronemberger AA, Gomes AS, Rodrigues EP, Barros BSV, Sousa LMA, Silva DFM

Recieved: 25 November 2014, Accepted: 28 February 2015, Published: 14 March 2015

Studies of zoosporic organisms carried out in Teresina, state of Piauí, and Timon, state of Maranhão, Brazil, enabled the collection of isolates that were identified as M. taylori. These are the first records of the species occurring in Brazil. Description and images are presented in this article.

Keywords: Maranhão – Piauí – poti – zoosporic organism

 

About CREAM Journal

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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