Volume 4 - 2014 - Issue 2

1. A new species of Corynespora from Sonebhadra forest of Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Singh A, Kumar S, Singh R, Dubey NK

Recieved: 27 February 2014, Accepted: 04 March 2014, Published: 29 August 2014

Corynespora moracina is described and illustrated on Ficus hispida (Moraceae) collected from forest flora of Sonebhadra, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Keywords: Fungal diversity – foliar disease – morphotaxonomy – Sonebhadra forest –Corynespora – new species


2. Efficacy of volatile metabolites of phylloplane fungi of Rauwolfia serpentina against Alternaria alternata

Authors: Thakur S, Harsh NSK

Recieved: 30 May 2014, Accepted: 02 August 2014, Published: 16 September 2014

Diseases of medicinal plants cause great economic losses and the use of chemical fungicides poses threat not only to the environment but also to the health of human beings. Now-a-days due to the hazardous effect of chemical fungicides application of biocontrol agents is being adopted. In the present study, phylloplane fungi of Rauwolfia serpentina were screened as potential biocontrol agents to assess their antagonistic potential against Alternaria alternata. Ten fungi were isolated from phylloplane of R. serpentina. Volatile metabolites produced from Trichoderma harzianum ISO-1 showed maximum reduction in mycelial growth of A. alternata followed by T. harzianum ISO-2, T. piluliferum, Aspergillus niger and P. sublateritium.

Keywords: Biocontrol agents – medicinal plant – pathogen


3. The genus Campanella (Marasmiaceae, Agaricales): A new species and a new combination and species status

Authors: Farook VA, Manimohan P

Recieved: 20 June 2014, Accepted: 28 August 2014, Published: 17 September 2014

Campanella keralensis sp. nov. is described from Kerala State, India and is assigned to subsection Aerugineae of section Campanella. Comprehensive description, photographs and comparisons with phenetically similar taxa are provided. Campanella simulans var. bispora is elevated to the status of species.

Keywords: Basidiomycota – biodiversity – systematics – taxonomy


4. Optimization of mycelial growth and cultivation of fruiting body of Philippine wild strain of Ganoderma lucidum

Authors: Magday Jr. JC, Bungihan ME, Dulay RMR

Recieved: 06 August 2014, Accepted: 08 September 2014, Published: 22 September 2014

Ganoderma lucidum is a white rot basidiomycete that grows on logs. Taking it as source of novel mycochemicals, the present study optimized growth conditions and fruiting body production of G. lucidum on different culture media, physical parameters like pH, aeration, illumination and temperature, spawn materials and rice straw–sawdust based substrate formulations. After 5 days of incubation,coconut water gelatin of pH 6.0 and in sealed and lighted conditions at room temperature (32oC) yielded the most efficient mycelial growth. Among the grains evaluated, corn grit produced a luxuriant mycelial growth in the shortest period of 5 days. Substrates having 70% rice straw and 30% sawdust recorded the shortest incubation period of 17.33 days for fructification. Basidiospores were germinated efficiently in coconut water gelatin after 72 hours of incubation. The basidiospores have a typical type of germination wherein the sporoderm produced a single germ tube, elongated, septated into a hypa, and branched to become monokaryotic primary mycelia. Mycelial coat hardening, primordial initiation, antler-like formation and basidiocarp maturation and spore liberation were observed as the sequence of fruit body development.

Keywords: basidiospore germination – cultivation phases – Ganoderma lucidum – mycelia growth – wild nutraceutical mushrooms


5. A preliminary study on macrofungal diversity in an arboretum and three plantations of the southwest coast of India

Authors: Karun NC and Sridhar KR

Recieved: 17 January 2014, Accepted: 29 May 2014, Published: 28 September 2014

This inventory focused on the diversity of macrofungi in an arboretum and three plantations (Acacia, Areca and cashew) of the southwest coast of India during monsoon (June-September) and early post-monsoon (October-November) seasons. A total of 79 macrofungi in 53 genera was recovered from 15,000 m2. The macrofungal species richness was higher in arboretum compared to plantations (30 vs. 17-22 species). The highest number of macrofungi were confined to the arboretum than the plantations (25 vs. 14-21 species), so also the core-group species (≥10 sporocarps/quadrat) (9 vs. 2-6 species). The richness of species as well as sporocarps were highest during June and decreased towards November. The macrofungal diversity was highest in Areca plantation and during monsoon period (August/September). Low species similarity was seen between the arobretum and plantations (0-12.8%), while the similarity increased from June through November (3.6-42.9%). About 50% of macrofungi possess economic value as ectomycorrhizal (25 species), edible (17 species) and medicinal (10 species). This survey revealed the macrofungal dependence on type of location and vegetation gives scope for their beneficial management.

Keywords: Arboretum – diversity – macrofungi – plantations – South Indian coast


6. Lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Shukla P, Upreti DK, Tewari LM

Recieved: 17 January 2014, Accepted: 29 May 2014, Published: 18 October 2014

Usnea is a widespread fruticose lichen popularly known for its medicinal properties across the world. Though it has been mentioned in many floristic studies reported from Uttarakhand, India, no detailed taxonomic account has been conducted for the past two decades. The present study was based on specimens deposited in lichen herbarium of National Botanical Research Institute (LWG), personal herbarium of D.D. Awasthi (AWAS) and herbarium of the department of botany, Lucknow University (LWU). A total of 28 species, including seven new additions to Uttarakhand, namely U. dendritica Stirt., U. lucea Mot., U. norketti G. Awasthi, U. pseudosinensis Asahina, U. sinensis Mot., U. spinosula Stirt., U. subflorida Stirt.are presented along with key to species.

Keywords: Fruticose – herbarium – taxonomy


7. Yeast community of Indonesian tempeh based on ITS-PCR T-RFLP analysis

Authors: Efriwati, Suwanto A, Rahayu G, Nuraida L

Recieved: 10 March 2014, Accepted: 02 September 2014, Published: 18 October 2014

Tempeh is the most higly consumed traditional fermented food in Indonesia. It is a product of a mixed microbial fermentation which harbors various types of molds, yeasts, and bacteria. Previous studies indicated that tempeh production methods might affect yeast population. However, studies of yeast community structure and population dynamics during tempeh production using DNA directly extracted from tempeh has not been reported. This research aimed to study the effect of two different tempeh production methods (method A and B) on yeast community phylotypes at five stages of tempeh production. The yeast community was estimated by PCR amplification of ITS1- 5.8S rRNA- ITS2 DNA sequence, followed by T-RFLP analyses. Boiled soybean and tempeh at different stages of fermentation was used as a source of metagenomic DNA. The result indicated that many yeast phylotypes were found in all stages of both tempeh production methods. There are two groups of yeast community phylotypes in tempeh produced by method A, and three groups of yeast community phylotypes in tempeh produced by method B. Nine phylotypes were found to be common and two of them predominant in both tempeh samples. Some phylotypes might be specific in one of the stages or in the tempeh production methods.

Keywords: diversity -  fermentation - phylotypes - predominant - soybean


8. Goosiomyces bambusicola - A new cheirosporous anamorphicspeciesfrom Western Ghats, India

Authors: Dubey R, Neelima AM

Recieved: 11 June 2014, Accepted: 01 October 2014, Published: 23 October 2014

A new hyphomycete species, belonging to genus Goosiomyces, i.e. Goosiomyces bambusicola, is taxonomically described and illustrated from India. It is characterized by branched; very long conidiophores, discrete conidiogenous cells, holoblastic conidiogenesis and smooth, cheiroid conidia. It can be easily differentiated from the type species G. digitatus, by variation in the dimensions and branching pattern of conidiophores and smooth conidia.

Keywords: Bambusa − fungal diversity − long conidiophores − new species − smooth conidia − taxonomy


9. Biochemical changes in the Lawsonia inermis infected with Asterina lawsoniae Henn. & nyn

Authors: Thomas J, Mathew KL

Recieved: 06 May 2014, Accepted: 28 October 2014, Published: 15 November 2014

Lawsonia inermis was infected with Asterina lawsoniae. This disease is common throughout the Southern Western Ghats of peninsular India. Taxonomic details of the fungus is provided. Infected plants revealed reduction in the total chlorophyll, chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', soluble sugar, starch, protein and total amino acids. There is an increase in the proline and total phenol contents. Amylase and protease enzyme activities increased in the infected leaves while peroxidase was reduced.

Keywords: amino acids – amylase – black mildew – chlorophyll – enzyme activities – foliicolous fungi – phenol – protease – protein – soluble sugar – starch


10. Collection and characterization of wild Basidiomycetes from the district Ludhiana (Punjab)

Authors: Kang SS, Kumar R, Kajal, Sodhi HS

Recieved: 14 March 2014, Accepted: 31 October 2014, Published: 17 November 2014

Survey of field and forest area of district Ludhiana was conducted to explore diversity of wild mushrooms for their collection, identification and characterization. Five mushrooms Chlorophyllum molybdites, Agaricus sp., Agaricus silvicola-a, Agaricus silvicola-band Agaricus arvensis were collected from the district Ludhiana which were accessioned as DMRO-568, DMRO-569, DMRO-570, DMRO-571, DMRO-572, respectively at Directorate of Mushroom Research, Chambaghat, Solan (India). Identification was made on the basis of mushroom morphology and microscopic characteristics. Linear growth on Complete Yeast extract Medium agar up to 10 days of incubation showed maximum growth for culture Agaricus arvensis (DMRO-572) as 8.00mm/d on 4th day while biomass was the maximum by Chlorophyllum molybdites (DMRO-568) as 2.48g/L/d. Maximum exoglucanase activity was seen in Agaricus silvicola-a (DMRO-570) (1.468 U/mg proteins) and endoglucanase activity in Agaricus silvicola-b (DMRO-571) (1.622 U/mg proteins). Xylanase activity was maximum for Agaricus silvicola (DMRO-570) (0.779 U/mg proteins). Laccase activity was observed maximum in Agaricus sp. (DMRO-569) and Agaricus arvensis (DMRO-572) (5.25 U/mg proteins). Spawn production of these cultures on wheat grains showed better growth by Agaricus arvensis (DMRO-572) as 4.25mm/d, 3.69mm/d and 5.66mm/d on 8th, 16th and 24th day, respectively. Compost was the preferred substrate for Chlorophyllum molybdites (DMRO-568) while wheat straw and paddy straw for Agaricus arvensis (DMRO-572). Four different identified species related to well known genus Agarics could be exploited for their commercial potential, but Chlorophyllum molybdites was inedible.

Keywords: Agaricus species − characterization − Chlorophyllum molybdites − diversity − Spawn preparation − substrate selection


11. Optimization and Characterization of cellulases from thermophilic strain of Scytalidium thermophilum SKESMBKU01

Authors: Sujatha E, Santoshkumar S, ShivaKrishna P

Recieved: 11 June 2014, Accepted: 12 September 2014, Published: 18 November 2014

Fifteen fungal isolates were isolated from different thermogenic habitats(vegetable market compost, mushroom compost, horse dung, municipal waste, nests of birds, decomposing litter, soils from furnace area, cattle dung, zoo dump and industrial waste.) of Andhra Pradesh. All the fungal isolates were screened for their ability to produce cellulases. The results showed that Scytalidium thermophilum SKESMBKU01found to have high cellulolytic activity at 45°C and pH–5.0. Optimization of enzyme production was studied in different carbon and nitrogen sources at the concentration of 1% and 0.2% respectively. The endo and exoglucanase activities are higher in media containing glucose as their carbon source followed by xylose and lactose. KNO3 as good nitrogen source for endoglucanase and urea for exoglucanase activity. The organism showed maximum dry weight in malt extract and peptone. The culture filtrate of S.thermophilum was dialyzed against distilled water over night and used as enzyme source. The exo and endocellulases produced by the Scytalidium thermophilum SKESMBKU01are highly stable at pH 8.0 and temperature of 85°C. The results indicate that the endo and exocellulases produced by Scytalidium thermophilum SKESMBKU01are more stable at high temperature and alkaline pH.

Keywords: Scytalidium thermophilum – cellulases – optimization – characterization


12. Molecular phylogeny of saprophytic wild edible mushroom species from Tanzania based on ITS and nLSU rDNA sequences

Authors: Hussein JM, Tibuhwa DD, Mshandete AM, Kivaisi AK

Recieved: 22 August 2014, Accepted: 28 September 2014, Published: 04 December 2014

Tanzania is endowed with diversified topographical features rich in indigenous forests which harbor many different saprophytic wild edible mushrooms (SWEM). Few studies have been carried out on characterizing these mushrooms, and those have used conventional methods whereby taxa were characterized using micro- and macromorphological features which are subtle and sometime fail to delimit closely related taxa. In this study, eight SWEM taxa were characterized using two molecular markers—the Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the nuclear large subunit (nLSU). The studied sequences were analyzed together with an additional of 19 GenBank sequences of related taxa in the genera Lentinus, Polyporus, Panus, Macrolepiota and Auricularia with maximum likelihood and Aspergillus niger as an outgroup. The BLAST search results on the NCBI database showed that the studied SWEM have ≥ 92% identity for ITS and ≥ 97 % identity for LSU. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the ITS data set revealed two major distinct clades with bootstrap support of 77% and 90% and five sub-clades supporting the five genera. The bootstrap support were 94% for Lentinus, 100% for Polyporus, 98% for Panus, 98%for Macrolepiota and 90 % for Auricularia, while the nLSU data set revealed the same two major distinct clades but with higher bootstrap support of 91% and 100%. The five subclades again supporting the five genera were 100% for Lentinus, 100% for Pluteus, 100% for Panus, 99% for Macrolepiota and 100% for Auricularia. From these results, it is clear that both ITS and LSU delineated the SWEM taxa to the six genera. However, the obtained support values showed that ITS sequences have the highest possibility of successful delineating the studied SWEM to species level than LSU. Moreover, the result also showed the genus Panus forming a monopyletic clade with Lentinus and Polyporus, thus contributing towards a better understanding of its problematic taxonomic ambiguities.

Keywords: Indigenous forest – ITS – LSU – Saprophytic – SWEM


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Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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