Volume 12 - 2022 -

1. The global tendency in the research of biological activity in endophytic fungi: a scientometric analysis

Authors: dos Santos IR, Mohamed TA, Borges LL, Abo Nahas HH, Abdel-Azeem MA, Carvalho DDC, Bezerra JP, Gupta VK, Xavier-Santos S, Abdel-Azeem AM

Recieved: 01 October 2021, Accepted: 03 December 2021, Published: 12 January 2022

Endophytic fungi colonize plants' interior tissues and organs, establishing a mutualistic relation without causing apparent harm. The biotechnological importance of these fungi has inspired research worldwide. Through scientometrics methods, it is possible to verify tendencies and gaps in different research area, collaborating with academic society to foster new studies and correlations. To identify the production of scientific knowledge relating to biological activity within endophytic fungi, we performed a survey on the platform Web of Science from studies published between 1997 and 2019 that have the following terms in the title, summary, or keywords: (Fung* AND Endophytic) AND (Bioprospecting OR Bio-prospecting OR Prospecting OR Bioactivit* OR “Biological Activit*”). A total of 458 studies were obtained, of which the following information was verified: publication year; average citations per year; journal; h-index of the journal; area of concentration; keyword and co-occurrence between them; network of collaboration between countries, institutions, and journals; bioassays realized and biological activity verified among endophytic fungi. China represents the nation-state that most frequently hosts research, followed by Brazil and India. According to our findings, the period between 2016 and 2019 showed an increase in the number of bioassays, nearly half of which (43%) proved to have antimicrobial activity, followed by anti-tumor activity (29%). These properties show that endophytic fungi can produce bioactive molecules of pharmaceutical and agronomic interest.

Keywords: Anti-tumor – Bio-activity – China – H-index – Natural products – Quantitative research – Scientometric indicators


2. Potential of keratinolytic fungi isolated from chicken and goat farms soil, North Sumatra

Authors: Aritonang R, Mamangkey J, Suryanto D, Munir E, Hartanto A

Recieved: 18 June 2021, Accepted: 20 January 2022, Published: 02 February 2022

Efforts have been made to develop fungal isolates with the ability to degrade chicken feather waste. The goal of this study was to find and test the ability of keratinolytic fungi isolated from the soil around chicken and goat farms to degrade chicken feather waste. The keratinolytic fungi were preliminarily screened for their proteolytic activity on skim milk agar medium. The study obtained forty six isolates that were characterized based on the fungal colonies color or fungal morphotypes. Eight fungal isolates (A2, A7, A12, A18, A29, A31, K1, and K2) displayed considerable proteolytic activities and total degradation of chicken feather in the fermentation medium or feather meal broth in 10 days. Based on the molecular analysis, the species identity of potential isolates namely K2, and A18 were assigned as Yunnania carbonaria and Penicillium citrinum.

Keywords: Chicken Feathers Waste – Degradation – ITS Identification – Keratinolytic Fungi


3. Molecular characterization and cultivation of edible wild mushrooms, Lentinus sajor-caju, L. squarrosulus and Pleurotus tuber-regium from Sri Lanka

Authors: Miriyagalla SD, Manamgoda DS, Udayanga D

Recieved: 15 September 2021, Accepted: 17 December 2021, Published: 14 February 2022

Tropical wild edible mushrooms are nutritious, delicious and economically important fungal bioresources. In this study, two edible Lentinus species and one Pleurotus species were collected from Central and Western provinces of Sri Lanka. After the initial morphological identification, growth rates and culture characteristics were observed in four different culture media. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR amplifications of fungal barcode, nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S (ITS) region were carried out. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identity of the isolates as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The possibilities of cultivation of the species collected were investigated using rice and corn as the spawn media, while rubber and mango saw dust were used as the basal media. A commercial P. ostreatus strain was used as a positive control strain alongside all experiments. All three newly collected species showed the highest growth rates on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and the highest mycelial density on corn spawn. Mycelia of all the isolates showed the highest growth rate in mango saw dust medium. Pleurotus tuber-regium, L. sajor-caju and L. squarrosulus produced fruit bodies 69, 88 and 49 days after spawning respectively. Highest mean yield for P. tuber-regium was observed in rubber saw dust (110.617 g ± 15.828), for L. sajor-caju in mango saw dust (13.978 g ± 3.656) and for L. squarrosulus in rubber saw dust (51.350 g ± 0). Based on the available information, this is the first successful cultivation of L. sajor-caju and P. tuber-regium strains collected from Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Basidiomycetes – DNA barcoding – spawn production


4. Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sugarcane rhizosphere from various agricultural management practices in Northeast, Thailand

Authors: Juntahum S, Kuyper TW, Boonlue S

Recieved: 30 March 2021, Accepted: 31 January 2022, Published: 23 February 2022

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the economically most important crops in Thailand. Sugarcane forms symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Species diversity of and root colonization by AMF may vary by agricultural management and soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the community composition of AMF in sugarcane rhizosphere soil with various cultivation practices. Twelve sugarcane rhizosphere soils were collected from sugarcane fields in three provinces (Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, and Buri Ram) with various forms of agricultural management, including organic farming (OM), semi-organic farming (SM), and conventional farming with mineral fertilizers (CM). The results showed that root colonization ranged between 10 and 22%, while spore density ranged from 11 to 168 spores 100 g soil-1. Based on morphological identification of AMF, a total of 43 taxa, representing 11 genera, were observed, viz. the genera Acaulospora, Claroideoglomus, Dentiscutata, Diversispora, Entrophospora, Funneliformis, Gigaspora, Glomus, Racocetra, Rhizophagus, and Septoglomus. One unidentified species was found. The dominant genera were Acaulospora and Glomus, which were found in all sites. Diversispora pustulata was the most widely distributed species, isolated in 75% of the sites. Species diversity of AMF, expressed by Shannon–Wiener index of diversity (H’), ranged from 1.03 to 2.14 with the highest diversity in OM systems and lowest diversity in CM systems. Our results may be used for considerations of agricultural management practices to benefit from communities of native AMF, which could be important for sustainable production of sugarcane.

Keywords: Agricultural management – Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi – Diversity – Sugarcane


5. Athelia rolfsii associated with mulberry root rot disease in Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: Saratha M, Angappan K, Karthikeyan S, Marimuthu S, Chozhan K

Recieved: 08 December 2021, Accepted: 23 March 2022, Published: 07 April 2022

During a survey (2019-2021), root rot symptoms were observed in the established mulberry gardens located in Harur and Kinathukadavu (GPS coordinates: 12.19750° N 78.28333° E and 10.81780° N 77.02340° E) of Tami Nadu, India. Dried foliage and rotten/ decayed root portions along with strands of mycelia were observed in the affected plants. Isolations from diseased roots yielded Sclerotium sp. and morphological characteristics were recorded on Potato dextrose agar. Molecular characterization was done by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and confirmed as Athelia rolfsii. Further pathogenicity was proved by detached root cortex technique and potculture experiments on the mulberry saplings. Artificially inoculated mulberry saplings showed wilting, yellowing with discoloured rotten root portions similar to a real-time field infection and re-isolation of A. rolfsii confirmed Koch’s postulates. Cryo-microtomy revealed the histopathology of rotten mulberry roots and compared them with healthy roots. The current research was done to document the occurrence of A. rolfsii causing root rot in mulberry to develop effective management to encompass the disease.

Keywords: Cryo-microtomy – decayed root – pathogenicity – S. rolfsii and survey


6. Two new species of Leucoagaricus (Agaricaceae) from Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Authors: Sysouphanthong P, Thongklang N

Recieved: 20 January 2022, Accepted: 20 March 2022, Published: 06 May 2022

Two new species of Leucoagaricus from Laos are described based on both morphological characteristics and evidence of molecular phylogeny. The first species, Leucoagaricus flavus, is well recognized by small and pale yellow to pastel yellow basidiomata; ovoid to ellipsoid basidiospores without a germ pore; clavate basidia; hyaline, clavate to narrowly clavate cheilocystidia; and a cutis pileus covering made up of cylindrical and hyaline elements. Primarily, it is distinguished from other species by its yellow basidiomata. The second species, Leucoagaricus griseosquamusus, is recognized by white basidiomata; grey to grayish-brown squamules; ellipsoidal ovoid basidiospores; clavate basidia; clavate to broadly clavate cheilocystidia; a hymeniderm pileus covering made up of a range of ellipsoidal to oblong elements with brown to the dark brown wall. Notably, each species is provided a full description, discussion on related species, field photographs, and line drawing of micro-characteristics. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses results based on nrITS sequences are provided to show the relationship of each new species.

Keywords: Agaricaceae – Basidiomycota – diversity – distribution – lepiotoid mushroom – phylogeny – Southeast Asia


7. Cellulariella warnieri (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) and its doubles

Authors: Welti S, Youcef Khodja L, Dumez S, Chaduli D, Favel A, Rahmania F, Courtecuisse R, Moreau P-A

Recieved: 23 November 2021, Accepted: 19 April 2022, Published: 12 May 2022

Species of Polyporales with a lamelliform hymenophore were traditionally classified in the genus Lenzites, until recent phylogenetic analyses revealed their affinities with various poroid lineages, leading to the re-classification of most of them. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of the lamellate Lenzites warnieri Durieu & Mont. have yet to be resolved. The recent erection of Cellulariella Zmitr. & V. Malysheva to encompass L. warnieri and L. acuta did little to disentangle the cross-synonymies between lamellate polypores of the Trametes group. To clarify the phylogenetic affinities of L. warnieri, we combined molecular data based on five markers (LSU, ITS, EF1-α, RPB1, RPB2) with morphological features of various collections belonging to the Trametes clade. In Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions based on RPB1, RPB2 and EF1-α, L. warnieri has an unresolved position on globally poorly supported cladograms. Conversely, phylogenetic analyses of the combined (ITS+LSU) sequences support a monophyletic clade encompassing L. warnieri and L. acuta, which forms a sister group, within a broader clade encompassing Leiotrametes, Pycnoporus and the sub-clade T. ljubarskyi – T. cingulata. These phylogenetic results are also supported by micromorphological data. Here we redefine the genus Cellulariella based on the moderate amount of scarcely branched, not flagelliform binding hyphae in the context, the pointed and fusiform hyphal ends protruding through the hymenium and a strictly lamelliform (lenzitoid) hymenophore. A lectotype is designated for Cellulariella warnieri. The name Lenzites acuta has also been misapplied to a species of Leiotrametes, possibly identical to Lenzites tenuis. Lenzites tenuis is here recombined as Leiotrametes tenuis comb. nov.

Keywords: Lenzites – phylogeny – Polyporaceae – taxonomy – Trametes


8. Mycobiota of rye seeds infected with ergot fungi

Authors: Ordza T, Węgrzyn E, Dominiak-Świgoń M, Lembicz M

Recieved: 10 January 2022, Accepted: 03 May 2022, Published: 12 May 2022

Ascomycetes from the genus Claviceps are long-known pathogens of plants, including cereals. Despite of this, no effective fungicide has been developed yet. We checked whether the presence of ergot impacts the size and composition of the mycobiota in rye seeds (Secale cereale). The sizes of spikes and seeds were also checked. To identify endophytes, the fungal isolates were analyzed using molecular markers ITS1 and ITS2. We found nine taxa of fungal endophytes in the studied rye seeds. The most abundantly represented fungus, regardless of ergot presence, was Alternaria infectoria. Seeds from the spikes with and without ergot differed in the presence of two fungal species: Microdochium nivale occurred only in the seeds of spikes with ergot, while Pyrenophora teres only in the seeds of spikes without ergot. No effect of ergot presence in rye spikes on seed size was found. The lack of differences in the size and taxonomical composition of mycobiota and seed size between plants with and without ergot confirms the hypothesis on the benefits of this dangerous for humans pathogen for plants.

Keywords: ergot – fungal microbiota – molecular detection – pathogenic ascomycetes


9. The genus Termitomyces- An appraisal of some basic and applied aspects from India

Authors: Kumari B, Sharma VP, Barh A, Atri NS

Recieved: 15 February 2022, Accepted: 27 April 2022, Published: 20 May 2022

The mushroom genus Termitomyces is a paleotropic exosymbiont forming mutualistic association with Macrotermitinae, a group of fungal mycelium eating termites. Because of its intimate mutualistic association with termites, culinary credentials and public preferences for its excellent flavor and meaty texture the genus Termitomyces carries great ecological and socio-economic significance. Basidiocarps of Termitomyces species develop from fungal combs constructed by termites using substrate, their fecal material and the soil within the termite nests. During rainingraining season the basidiocarp of this mushroom genus are commonly gathered by the local inhabitants for personal consumption as well as for selling to the local consumers both in African and Asian countries including India. Due to their exotic taste termitophilic mushrooms are considered as table delicacy in comparison to other mushrooms. For accurate identification and phylogenetic analysis of termitophilic mushrooms both classical as well multigene molecular sequencing techniques are included worldwide in recent years. In view of the importance of these mushrooms in human welfare on the basis of available information in literature an attempt has been made in this treatise to give an insight into their diversity, morphological variation, mutulistic, association, ethnomycological, sociobiological and therapeutic aspects.

Keywords: Culinary – ethno-mycological – medicinal – sociobiology – Termitomyces


About CREAM Journal

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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    Institute of Plant and Environment Protection
    Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences

    Mushroom Research Foundation (MRF)
    292 Moo 18 Bandu District
    Muang Chiangrai
    Thailand 57100