Volume 12 - 2022 -

1. The global tendency in the research of biological activity in endophytic fungi: a scientometric analysis

Authors: dos Santos IR, Mohamed TA, Borges LL, Abo Nahas HH, Abdel-Azeem MA, Carvalho DDC, Bezerra JP, Gupta VK, Xavier-Santos S, Abdel-Azeem AM

Recieved: 01 October 2021, Accepted: 03 December 2021, Published: 12 January 2022

Endophytic fungi colonize plants' interior tissues and organs, establishing a mutualistic relation without causing apparent harm. The biotechnological importance of these fungi has inspired research worldwide. Through scientometrics methods, it is possible to verify tendencies and gaps in different research area, collaborating with academic society to foster new studies and correlations. To identify the production of scientific knowledge relating to biological activity within endophytic fungi, we performed a survey on the platform Web of Science from studies published between 1997 and 2019 that have the following terms in the title, summary, or keywords: (Fung* AND Endophytic) AND (Bioprospecting OR Bio-prospecting OR Prospecting OR Bioactivit* OR “Biological Activit*”). A total of 458 studies were obtained, of which the following information was verified: publication year; average citations per year; journal; h-index of the journal; area of concentration; keyword and co-occurrence between them; network of collaboration between countries, institutions, and journals; bioassays realized and biological activity verified among endophytic fungi. China represents the nation-state that most frequently hosts research, followed by Brazil and India. According to our findings, the period between 2016 and 2019 showed an increase in the number of bioassays, nearly half of which (43%) proved to have antimicrobial activity, followed by anti-tumor activity (29%). These properties show that endophytic fungi can produce bioactive molecules of pharmaceutical and agronomic interest.

Keywords: Anti-tumor – Bio-activity – China – H-index – Natural products – Quantitative research – Scientometric indicators


2. Potential of keratinolytic fungi isolated from chicken and goat farms soil, North Sumatra

Authors: Aritonang R, Mamangkey J, Suryanto D, Munir E, Hartanto A

Recieved: 18 June 2021, Accepted: 20 January 2022, Published: 02 February 2022

Efforts have been made to develop fungal isolates with the ability to degrade chicken feather waste. The goal of this study was to find and test the ability of keratinolytic fungi isolated from the soil around chicken and goat farms to degrade chicken feather waste. The keratinolytic fungi were preliminarily screened for their proteolytic activity on skim milk agar medium. The study obtained forty six isolates that were characterized based on the fungal colonies color or fungal morphotypes. Eight fungal isolates (A2, A7, A12, A18, A29, A31, K1, and K2) displayed considerable proteolytic activities and total degradation of chicken feather in the fermentation medium or feather meal broth in 10 days. Based on the molecular analysis, the species identity of potential isolates namely K2, and A18 were assigned as Yunnania carbonaria and Penicillium citrinum.

Keywords: Chicken Feathers Waste – Degradation – ITS Identification – Keratinolytic Fungi


3. Molecular characterization and cultivation of edible wild mushrooms, Lentinus sajor-caju, L. squarrosulus and Pleurotus tuber-regium from Sri Lanka

Authors: Miriyagalla SD, Manamgoda DS, Udayanga D

Recieved: 15 September 2021, Accepted: 17 December 2021, Published: 14 February 2022

Tropical wild edible mushrooms are nutritious, delicious and economically important fungal bioresources. In this study, two edible Lentinus species and one Pleurotus species were collected from Central and Western provinces of Sri Lanka. After the initial morphological identification, growth rates and culture characteristics were observed in four different culture media. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR amplifications of fungal barcode, nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S (ITS) region were carried out. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identity of the isolates as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The possibilities of cultivation of the species collected were investigated using rice and corn as the spawn media, while rubber and mango saw dust were used as the basal media. A commercial P. ostreatus strain was used as a positive control strain alongside all experiments. All three newly collected species showed the highest growth rates on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and the highest mycelial density on corn spawn. Mycelia of all the isolates showed the highest growth rate in mango saw dust medium. Pleurotus tuber-regium, L. sajor-caju and L. squarrosulus produced fruit bodies 69, 88 and 49 days after spawning respectively. Highest mean yield for P. tuber-regium was observed in rubber saw dust (110.617 g ± 15.828), for L. sajor-caju in mango saw dust (13.978 g ± 3.656) and for L. squarrosulus in rubber saw dust (51.350 g ± 0). Based on the available information, this is the first successful cultivation of L. sajor-caju and P. tuber-regium strains collected from Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Basidiomycetes – DNA barcoding – spawn production


4. Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sugarcane rhizosphere from various agricultural management practices in Northeast, Thailand

Authors: Juntahum S, Kuyper TW, Boonlue S

Recieved: 30 March 2021, Accepted: 31 January 2022, Published: 23 February 2022

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the economically most important crops in Thailand. Sugarcane forms symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Species diversity of and root colonization by AMF may vary by agricultural management and soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the community composition of AMF in sugarcane rhizosphere soil with various cultivation practices. Twelve sugarcane rhizosphere soils were collected from sugarcane fields in three provinces (Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, and Buri Ram) with various forms of agricultural management, including organic farming (OM), semi-organic farming (SM), and conventional farming with mineral fertilizers (CM). The results showed that root colonization ranged between 10 and 22%, while spore density ranged from 11 to 168 spores 100 g soil-1. Based on morphological identification of AMF, a total of 43 taxa, representing 11 genera, were observed, viz. the genera Acaulospora, Claroideoglomus, Dentiscutata, Diversispora, Entrophospora, Funneliformis, Gigaspora, Glomus, Racocetra, Rhizophagus, and Septoglomus. One unidentified species was found. The dominant genera were Acaulospora and Glomus, which were found in all sites. Diversispora pustulata was the most widely distributed species, isolated in 75% of the sites. Species diversity of AMF, expressed by Shannon–Wiener index of diversity (H’), ranged from 1.03 to 2.14 with the highest diversity in OM systems and lowest diversity in CM systems. Our results may be used for considerations of agricultural management practices to benefit from communities of native AMF, which could be important for sustainable production of sugarcane.

Keywords: Agricultural management – Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi – Diversity – Sugarcane


5. Athelia rolfsii associated with mulberry root rot disease in Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: Saratha M, Angappan K, Karthikeyan S, Marimuthu S, Chozhan K

Recieved: 08 December 2021, Accepted: 23 March 2022, Published: 07 April 2022

During a survey (2019-2021), root rot symptoms were observed in the established mulberry gardens located in Harur and Kinathukadavu (GPS coordinates: 12.19750° N 78.28333° E and 10.81780° N 77.02340° E) of Tami Nadu, India. Dried foliage and rotten/ decayed root portions along with strands of mycelia were observed in the affected plants. Isolations from diseased roots yielded Sclerotium sp. and morphological characteristics were recorded on Potato dextrose agar. Molecular characterization was done by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and confirmed as Athelia rolfsii. Further pathogenicity was proved by detached root cortex technique and potculture experiments on the mulberry saplings. Artificially inoculated mulberry saplings showed wilting, yellowing with discoloured rotten root portions similar to a real-time field infection and re-isolation of A. rolfsii confirmed Koch’s postulates. Cryo-microtomy revealed the histopathology of rotten mulberry roots and compared them with healthy roots. The current research was done to document the occurrence of A. rolfsii causing root rot in mulberry to develop effective management to encompass the disease.

Keywords: Cryo-microtomy – decayed root – pathogenicity – S. rolfsii and survey


6. Two new species of Leucoagaricus (Agaricaceae) from Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Authors: Sysouphanthong P, Thongklang N

Recieved: 20 January 2022, Accepted: 20 March 2022, Published: 06 May 2022

Two new species of Leucoagaricus from Laos are described based on both morphological characteristics and evidence of molecular phylogeny. The first species, Leucoagaricus flavus, is well recognized by small and pale yellow to pastel yellow basidiomata; ovoid to ellipsoid basidiospores without a germ pore; clavate basidia; hyaline, clavate to narrowly clavate cheilocystidia; and a cutis pileus covering made up of cylindrical and hyaline elements. Primarily, it is distinguished from other species by its yellow basidiomata. The second species, Leucoagaricus griseosquamusus, is recognized by white basidiomata; grey to grayish-brown squamules; ellipsoidal ovoid basidiospores; clavate basidia; clavate to broadly clavate cheilocystidia; a hymeniderm pileus covering made up of a range of ellipsoidal to oblong elements with brown to the dark brown wall. Notably, each species is provided a full description, discussion on related species, field photographs, and line drawing of micro-characteristics. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses results based on nrITS sequences are provided to show the relationship of each new species.

Keywords: Agaricaceae – Basidiomycota – diversity – distribution – lepiotoid mushroom – phylogeny – Southeast Asia


7. Cellulariella warnieri (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) and its doubles

Authors: Welti S, Youcef Khodja L, Dumez S, Chaduli D, Favel A, Rahmania F, Courtecuisse R, Moreau P-A

Recieved: 23 November 2021, Accepted: 19 April 2022, Published: 12 May 2022

Species of Polyporales with a lamelliform hymenophore were traditionally classified in the genus Lenzites, until recent phylogenetic analyses revealed their affinities with various poroid lineages, leading to the re-classification of most of them. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of the lamellate Lenzites warnieri Durieu & Mont. have yet to be resolved. The recent erection of Cellulariella Zmitr. & V. Malysheva to encompass L. warnieri and L. acuta did little to disentangle the cross-synonymies between lamellate polypores of the Trametes group. To clarify the phylogenetic affinities of L. warnieri, we combined molecular data based on five markers (LSU, ITS, EF1-α, RPB1, RPB2) with morphological features of various collections belonging to the Trametes clade. In Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions based on RPB1, RPB2 and EF1-α, L. warnieri has an unresolved position on globally poorly supported cladograms. Conversely, phylogenetic analyses of the combined (ITS+LSU) sequences support a monophyletic clade encompassing L. warnieri and L. acuta, which forms a sister group, within a broader clade encompassing Leiotrametes, Pycnoporus and the sub-clade T. ljubarskyi – T. cingulata. These phylogenetic results are also supported by micromorphological data. Here we redefine the genus Cellulariella based on the moderate amount of scarcely branched, not flagelliform binding hyphae in the context, the pointed and fusiform hyphal ends protruding through the hymenium and a strictly lamelliform (lenzitoid) hymenophore. A lectotype is designated for Cellulariella warnieri. The name Lenzites acuta has also been misapplied to a species of Leiotrametes, possibly identical to Lenzites tenuis. Lenzites tenuis is here recombined as Leiotrametes tenuis comb. nov.

Keywords: Lenzites – phylogeny – Polyporaceae – taxonomy – Trametes


8. Mycobiota of rye seeds infected with ergot fungi

Authors: Ordza T, Węgrzyn E, Dominiak-Świgoń M, Lembicz M

Recieved: 10 January 2022, Accepted: 03 May 2022, Published: 12 May 2022

Ascomycetes from the genus Claviceps are long-known pathogens of plants, including cereals. Despite of this, no effective fungicide has been developed yet. We checked whether the presence of ergot impacts the size and composition of the mycobiota in rye seeds (Secale cereale). The sizes of spikes and seeds were also checked. To identify endophytes, the fungal isolates were analyzed using molecular markers ITS1 and ITS2. We found nine taxa of fungal endophytes in the studied rye seeds. The most abundantly represented fungus, regardless of ergot presence, was Alternaria infectoria. Seeds from the spikes with and without ergot differed in the presence of two fungal species: Microdochium nivale occurred only in the seeds of spikes with ergot, while Pyrenophora teres only in the seeds of spikes without ergot. No effect of ergot presence in rye spikes on seed size was found. The lack of differences in the size and taxonomical composition of mycobiota and seed size between plants with and without ergot confirms the hypothesis on the benefits of this dangerous for humans pathogen for plants.

Keywords: ergot – fungal microbiota – molecular detection – pathogenic ascomycetes


9. The genus Termitomyces- An appraisal of some basic and applied aspects from India

Authors: Kumari B, Sharma VP, Barh A, Atri NS

Recieved: 15 February 2022, Accepted: 27 April 2022, Published: 20 May 2022

The mushroom genus Termitomyces is a paleotropic exosymbiont forming mutualistic association with Macrotermitinae, a group of fungal mycelium eating termites. Because of its intimate mutualistic association with termites, culinary credentials and public preferences for its excellent flavor and meaty texture the genus Termitomyces carries great ecological and socio-economic significance. Basidiocarps of Termitomyces species develop from fungal combs constructed by termites using substrate, their fecal material and the soil within the termite nests. During rainingraining season the basidiocarp of this mushroom genus are commonly gathered by the local inhabitants for personal consumption as well as for selling to the local consumers both in African and Asian countries including India. Due to their exotic taste termitophilic mushrooms are considered as table delicacy in comparison to other mushrooms. For accurate identification and phylogenetic analysis of termitophilic mushrooms both classical as well multigene molecular sequencing techniques are included worldwide in recent years. In view of the importance of these mushrooms in human welfare on the basis of available information in literature an attempt has been made in this treatise to give an insight into their diversity, morphological variation, mutulistic, association, ethnomycological, sociobiological and therapeutic aspects.

Keywords: Culinary – ethno-mycological – medicinal – sociobiology – Termitomyces


10. In vitro screening of the anti-diabetic activity of six species of edible termite associated mushrooms (Termitomyces spp.) from the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Authors: Kanjo WR, Njouonkou A-L, Yongabi AK, Manfo TFP, Tume C, Nantia AE

Recieved: 15 April 2022, Accepted: 07 August 2022, Published: 19 August 2022

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. The present study aimed at evaluating the anti-diabetic potential of six different Termitomyces mushrooms (T. letestui, T. microcarpus, T. schimperi, T. aurantiacus, T. clypeatus, and T. umkowaan) by testing their ability to inhibit the enzymes α-amylase, β-glucosidase, invertase and lipase that are involved in carbohydrate and lipid digestion within the gastrointestinal tract. Different inhibitory assays were carried out using aqueous extracts of the mushroom species at five different concentrations (0.52.5 mg/mL). Results showed inhibition enzyme specific variability with T. umkowaan, T. clypeatus, T. microcarpus, and T. aurantiacus showing the highest inhibitory activity on α-amylase (78.8%, IC50 = 1.355 ± 0.001mg/mL), β-glucosidase (77.0%, IC50 = 1.387 ± 0.006mg/mL), invertase (85.8%, IC50 = 1.171 ± 0.002 mg/mL) and lipase (61.6%, IC50 = 1.834 ± 0.007mg/mL), respectively. In general, the studied Termitomyces possess anti-diabetic potentials with some specificity according to the targeted enzyme.

Keywords: Anti-diabetic activity – diabetes mellitus – invertase – lipase – Termitomyces – α-amylase – β-glucosidase


11. Diversity of microfungi of coal mine spoil tips in the Magadan Region, Russia

Authors: Iliushin VA, Kirtsideli IYu, Sazanova NA

Recieved: 18 March 2022, Accepted: 16 August 2022, Published: 06 September 2022

The aim of this study was to explore the dynamics of microfungi complexes of coal mine spoil tips during the process of their overgrowth in the forest-tundra zone. The fungal complexes of the coal mine spoil tips around the town Susuman (Magadan Region, Russia) were investigated. Samples were taken from coal mine spoil tips with different ages (formed, 12-years, 25-years and 43-years). Forest-tundra soils were used as the control. The species composition, level of diversity, dominant groups of species and isolate density of fungal communities were studied. The rocky substrate of the spoil tips and harsh climatic conditions determined the relatively low diversity of microfungi. Only 12 species of microfungi were identified in the samples from the formed spoil tip, while in the samples from the 43-year-old tip the number of microfungi species increased to 24. The average density of microfungi (CFU/g) increased with the age of spoil tips. The composition of the dominant species of microfungi changed with the age of the spoil tips increased. 

Keywords: biodiversity – coal mining – Far East – forest-tundra – microscopic fungi – succession


12. Comparison of colonization, diversity, and molecular phylogeny of endophytic fungi in selected traditional and newly improved rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka

Authors: Pathmanathan N, Deshappriya N, Manamgoda DS, Sandamali TGI, Munasinghe M

Recieved: 23 May 2022, Accepted: 24 August 2022, Published: 15 September 2022

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple diet amongst almost all ethnic groups in Sri Lanka. The use of endophytic microorganisms inhabiting the rice plant is a promising strategy for improving paddy yields. However, little is known about the diversity and the evolutionary relationships among the species of endophytic fungal assemblages associated with different rice varieties in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study was aimed at the assessment of colonization, diversity, identification, and the phylogenetic relationships of endophytic fungi present in newly improved rice varieties At 362, Bg 352, Bw 367, and a traditional variety, Suwandel. Healthy plant samples of each rice variety were collected during the two main rice-growing seasons, Maha and Yala (2019), from Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Sri Lanka. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of each rice variety using previously developed protocols. All strains were categorized into thirty-nine (39) morphological groups based on colony characteristics and micro-morphological features. The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of a representative strain of each morphological group was amplified and sequenced. They were identified by phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of ex-types. Thirty-one (31) isolates identified to species level belonged to twenty-two (22) genera within nine (9) orders. Apart from that, four (04) and three (03) isolates were identified up to generic and order levels respectively. One isolate was identified up to the family level. Out of the fungal species, seventeen (17) were novel records for Sri Lanka. Evaluation of the colonization percentages of endophytic fungal assemblages showed that the variety Suwandel collected from Kurunegala during the Maha and Yala seasons respectively had the highest colonization rate (52% and 35%). The study also showed that Aspergillus tereus, Curvularia lunata, Dendryphiella sp., Fusarium falciforme, Microdochium fisheri, and Penicillium oxalicum were the most dominant species in all rice varieties. Endophytic fungal diversity evaluated by Shannon’s and Simpsons diversity indices showed the highest species diversity in variety Bg 352 collected from Kalutara district during the Yala season. 

Keywords: Endophyte – ITS – Novel records – Poaceae


13. Distribution, cultivation, nutritional composition, and bioactivities of Lentinus (Polyporaceae, Basidiomycetes): A review

Authors: Fabros JA, Dulay RMR, De Leon AM, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG

Recieved: 15 June 2022, Accepted: 24 August 2022, Published: 15 September 2022

Lentinus of the family Polyporaceae is one of the widely distributed and studied mushrooms worldwide. Aside from their reported edibility, species of Lentinus are well known for their nutritional and medicinal properties. Accordingly, this review aimed to provide a global checklist of Lentinus species, optimal culture conditions with special reference to their nutritional and physical requirements for growth and production, nutritional and bioactive compositions, biological properties, and other applications. A total of 86 Lentinus taxa belonging to 26 species were reported in 30 countries in Asia, Central and South America, Europe, and Africa, of which India recorded the highest number of species. Lentinus tigrinus was identified as the most widely reported species of the genus. Most Lentinus species favor coconut water-based medium for mycelial growth and rice straw and sawdust-based formulated substrate for fruiting body production. Lentinus species are rich sources of carbohydrates, crude fiber, 18 amino acids, 16 fatty acids, 14 mycochemicals, and 83 mycocompounds. They are also reported to exhibit several biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, anticancer, antihypertensive, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, cytotoxic, and teratogenicity. Moreover, Lentinus species are utilized in bioremediation, decolorization of waste dyes, and water purification. The data presented in this review, particularly the cultivation, nutritional, and biological compounds, and bioactivities of Lentinus species can be used as benchmark data for the production of Lentinus-based products such as nutritious and functional foods, dietary supplements, and pharmaceutical drugs in the global market.

Keywords: anticancer – functional food – mushroom diversity – responsible production


14. Dispersal distances of dung fungal spores: an in vivo experimental setup

Authors: Van Asperen EN, Brennan J, Reid A

Recieved: 25 June 2022, Accepted: 30 August 2022, Published: 15 September 2022

Spores of coprophilous fungi from sedimentary sequences are increasingly used to study past herbivore presence and abundance. Dung fungal spores are regarded as very local indicators of herbivore dung due to their short dispersal distances. Previous studies of dispersal distances used highly artificial set-ups that can inform us about the dispersal potential of individual species, but do not reflect the field situation very well. We present an in vivo experimental setup using dung as a substrate, allowing the fungi to grow and compete as in the field situation, with a more natural light source, to assess dispersal distances.

Active dispersal can propel spores or spore clusters to great distances (up to 2.5 m in Pilobolus). However, most spores travelled no more than ~20 cm from the dung source. Apart from Pilobolus sporangia, most spores are not propelled very high (~10 cm). Spores are overwhelmingly dispersed towards the light. The aerodynamic features (mainly spore size and cluster size) of the spores may have less impact on dispersal distance than initial velocity, thermal convection generated by the decomposition of the dung and wind, although spores are only sporadically found in air samples. Dung fungal spores can thus be regarded as highly local indicators of the presence of animal dung.

Keywords: active discharge – coprophilous fungi – palaeoecology


15. Macrofungi of the Dominican Republic: a first checklist and introduction to www.neotropicalfungi.com

Authors: Angelini C

Recieved: 19 October 2022, Accepted: 03 October 2022, Published: 04 November 2022

Approximately 1,700 mushroom specimens were collected in the Dominican Republic from 2004 to 2021, comprising 450 species and 210 genera, as determined by morphological and/or molecular characteristics. The macrofungi belonging to Ascomycota include 28 species and 15 genera, while those in Basidiomycota include 432 species and 195 genera. Much taxonomic work is still ongoing, both for the identification of many collections and additional collecting for species not yet catalogued. It is estimated that this checklist represents 5−10% of the macrofungi present in the country. The webpage, www.neotropicalfungi.com, has been set up to document and illustrate the fungi of the Dominican Republic. 

Keywords: Caribbean – checklist – Dominican Republic – fungal diversity – Greater Antilles


16. Biomass destructuring enzymes of fungal endophytes of mangrove roots

Authors: Paranetharan MS, Thirunavukkarasu N, Rajamani T, Suryanarayanan TS

Recieved: 09 September 2022, Accepted: 19 October 2022, Published: 14 November 2022

Fungal endophytes of mangrove roots were found to be halotolerant and grew in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl in the growth medium (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 or 4.5%). The growth of a few endophytes was reduced slightly with increasing salt (NaCl) concentration; the growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Pseudopestalotiopsis theae was unaffected by salt in the medium. Interestingly, Phomopsis sp. 1 showed increased growth in the presence of salt. Some of the endophytes elaborated salt induced and salt tolerant cellulase and β-glucosidase enzymes. They also produced salt tolerant laccases. These results go to suggest that the halotolerant mangrove root endophytes could function effectively as biomass degraders in the submerged ecosystem of mangroves and play a role in nutrient cycling here.

Keywords: litter degradation – nutrient cycling – salt tolerant enzymes


17. World biota conservation vs fungal conservation practice

Authors: Pasailiuk MV, Sukhomlyn MM, Gryganskyi AP, Fontana NM

Recieved: 29 April 2022, Accepted: 25 October 2022, Published: 15 November 2022

The article analyzes the world experience of biodiversity protection with an emphasis on aspects of fungal protection. Information on environmental organizations, societies, unions, and documents developed by these organizations is presented in chronological order. The generally accepted principles of effective protection of fungi and methods that can direct the natural reproduction of rare species are considered. Our aim is to describe the situation with protection of fungal species (in-situ, ex-situ and re-situ) compared to the methods and practices for plants and animals, using the case studies in Hutsulshchyna Nature National Park, Ukraine.

Keywords: Conventions – ex-situ ‒ in-situ ‒ IUCN − Red list – re-situ


18. Pestalotioid species associated with palm species from Southern China

Authors: Xiong YR, Manawasinghe IS, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Lu L, Dong ZY, Xiang MM, Xu B

Recieved: 25 August 2022, Accepted: 19 October 2022, Published: 16 November 2022

Palm is the largest monocot group widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. The importance of palm species ranges from food sources to landscape. Therefore, the identification and characterization of pathogens associated with these hosts have economic and ecological significance. During surveys in 2020 to 2021, leaf spots on diseased Sabal mexicana and rotting tissues of Areca triandra, Arenga pinnata, Dypsis leptocheilos, Washingtonia robusta were collected from three cities in southwestern China. Fungal isolates were identified using morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA, beta-tubulin (tub2) gene and part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef 1-α). Six Neopestalotiopsis isolates and 22 Pestalotiopsis isolates were obtained. These isolates were further confirmed as two novel species described here as P. guangdongnsis and P. sabal; and three new host records N. formicidarum, P. diploclisae, P. kandelicola; and one unclassified Neopestalotiopsis sp. Pathogenicity assays were conducted on potted Sabal mexicana leaves for all isolated taxa. The results revealed that all species isolated from this study induced weak lesions on Sabal mexicana leaves. Pathogens were reisolated, and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The results from this study will be an addition to micro-fungi associated with palm trees. Moreover, pathogenicity test results revealed the opportunistic nature of pestalotioid species on Sabal mexicana. These results will provide a basic platform to understand the pathogenic mechanisms and lifestyle of pestalotioid species in the future.

Keywords: 2 new species – 3 new host records – Neopestalotiopsis – Pestalotiopsis –Pathogenicity – Sporocadaceae


19. Morphology and muti-gene phylogenetic analysis reveals Dothiorella chiangmaiensis sp. nov. (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales) from Thailand

Authors: Rathnayaka AR, Chethana KWT, Pasouvang P, Phillips AJL

Recieved: 20 October 2022, Accepted: 09 November 2022, Published: 17 November 2022

Dothiorella species occur on a wide range of plants as endophytes, saprobes and pathogens. This genus is characterized by pigmented, 1-septate ascospores, and conidia that become brown and 1-septate while still attached to the conidiogenous cells. In the current study, we introduce a novel saprobic species, Dothiorella chiangmaiensis, from dead branches of Tamarindus indica (Fabaceae) in Thailand. This novel taxon was recognized based on morphological examinations coupled with phylogenetic analyses. Multigene phylogenetic analyses were performed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of an ITS, tef1 and tub2 sequence alignment. Conidia of D. chiangmaiensis are dark brown, 1-septate and guttulate. The novel taxon is described and illustrated. This study contributes to expanding the taxonomic framework for Dothiorella by introducing a new species.

Keywords: 1-new species – Dothideomycetes – morphology – phylogeny


20. Two novel species of Lachnaceae (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) from southwestern China

Authors: Li CJY, Chethana KWT, Lu ZY, Zhao Q

Recieved: 21 September 2022, Accepted: 19 October 2022, Published: 18 November 2022

Two new species of Lachnaceae, Erioscyphella latispora and Proliferodiscus longisporus were discovered from a newly fallen trunk and the bark of Liquidambar formosana, respectively, in Yunnan Province, China. Erioscyphella latispora is distinguished from other species by its long stipe, scaled, tilted outward white hairs, poorly-developed ectal excipulum and wide, fusiform ascospores. Proliferodiscus longisporus is distinguished from other species by pale brownish orange hairs with resinous materials and larger asci and ascospores. Phylogenetic analyses of the nLSU-ITS-RPB2 show that the Erioscyphella latispora and Proliferodiscus longisporus form monophyletic lineages with high ML bootstrap and BI posterior probability support. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are provided for Erioscyphella latispora and Proliferodiscus longisporus.

Keywords: 2 new taxa – Erioscyphella – phylogeny – Proliferodiscus – taxonomy


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Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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    Guizhou University
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