Volume 10 - 2020 -

1. Polymeric compositions of medical devices account for the variations in Candida albicans biofilm structural morphology

Authors: Sumalapao DEP, Villarante NR, Salazar PBD, Alegre FMD, Altura MT, Sia IC, Flores MJC, Amalin DM, Gloriani NG

Recieved: 25 March 2019, Accepted: 02 January 2020, Published: 22 January 2020

The increase in the number of fungal infections has been associated with the prevalent use of medical devices. This study assessed the morphological structure of Candida albicans biofilms on the surfaces of medical devices using scanning electron microscopy and characterized the polymeric compositions of these medical devices using infrared spectroscopic study. Biofilms on the surfaces of these medical devices exhibited variations in morphological topographies ranging from the presence of ellipsoid and spherical yeast cells joining end to end, to the growth of pseudohyphae and hyphae formation with chains of cylindrical cells, and the formation of several microcolonies entrenched in a polymeric matrix. The differences in the spectroscopic profiles of the medical devices accounted for the variations in the structural morphology of these biofilms. Spectral studies on polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube revealed sp3-CH stretching frequencies at 2959, 2926, and 2858 cm-1 with CCl stretching frequencies at 636 cm-1 and 693 cm-1. Silicone polymer containing medical devices had SiOSi and SiC stretching frequencies identified at 1096 cm-1 and 804 cm-1 for the silicone urinary catheter, while the stretching frequencies were identified at 1005 cm-1 and 862 cm-1 for the silicone nasogastric tube, respectively. Given the information on the variations in the morphological appearance of the biofilms on medical device surfaces, these differences on the polymeric compositions of the medical devices can provide explanations on the adhesion potential, biofilm formation, structural morphology, and subsequent susceptibility pattern of the sessile organism to antifungal drugs.

Keywords: Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy – Biofilm – Candida albicans – Polyvinyl chloride polymer – Scanning electron microscopy – Silicone polymer


2. Influence of seasons on endophytic fungal assemblage in Alloteropsis cimicina (L.) Stapf. and Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. of the sub-family panicoideae

Authors: Nischitha R, Shivanna MB

Recieved: 24 September 2019, Accepted: 20 December 2019, Published: 22 January 2020

Endophytic fungi occur symbiotically in grasses inhabiting diverse environmental and geographical conditions. Certain perennial grasses are studied for the associated endophytic fungi in shoot and root regions. However, endophytic fungal assemblages in aerial regions of grass species Alloteropsis cimicina and Heteropogon contortus of sub-family panicoideae in the Western Ghats of Karnataka is not documented. Aerial regions of above grass species were determined for endophytic fungal occurrence and diversity PDA, MEA and moist-blotter (MB) methods during rainy, winter and summer seasons for two years. Results of the study revealed the occurrence of 95 fungal species of 38 genera from A. cimicina and 76 species of 32 genera from H. contortus. These were grouped into 57 and 47 asexual ascomycetes and 29 and 22 sexual ascomycetes, respectively, in A. cimicina and H. contortus. Certain taxa were media-specific or common to all media tested. Endophytic fungal assemblage was more in rainy in case of A. cimicina, while it was more in winter season in case of H. contortus. More asexual ascomycetes occurred than sexual ascomycetes. Colonization frequency of fungal species was more in PDA than in other methods. Inflorescence, among aerial regions, harboured increased number of endophytic fungi. This work highlights the importance of incubation methods, plant regions and seasons in determining endophytic fungal assemblage in these two perennial grass species. Richness and distribution of endophytic fungi in plant regions, as well as in grass species, explains beta diversity of endophytic fungi in these perennial grass species.

Keywords: Endophytic fungal diversity – isolation methods – panicoideae – seasonal variation


3. Selinia pulchra (G. Winter) Sacc. (Bionectriaceae, Ascomycota): a new genus and species record for Ukraine

Authors: Lytvynenko YuI, Dzhagan VV, Nyshenko VV

Recieved: 23 August 2019, Accepted: 02 January 2020, Published: 24 January 2020

Data on a new for Ukraine coprophilous fungus – Selinia pulchra (G. Winter) Sacc. (Bionectriaceae) are reported. It was collected in the north-east of the country (Sumy Region). Based on the collected specimen, distinctive morphological characters of the species are provided in detail. The description is illustrated by micrographs obtained using light and scanning electron microscopy. For the described specimen, its locality, substrate and collection date are indicated. In addition to morphological characters, ecological peculiarities and data on the general distribution of this species are briefly discussed.

Keywords: coprophilous fungi – distribution – Hypocreales – Sordariomycetes – Sumy Region


4. Morphological characteristics and molecular phylogeny of Disciseda hyalothrix (Gasteromycetes) from Altai Mountains, a new record to Northern Asia

Authors: Vlasenko VA, Rebriev YuA, Asbaganov SV, Dejidmaa T, Vlasenko AV

Recieved: 11 August 2019, Accepted: 16 December 2019, Published: 31 January 2020

Morphological characteristics and molecular phylogeny of the gasteroid fungus, Disciseda hyalothrix, and data on its localities, habitat and distribution are provided. This rare species of D. hyalothrix was found in the protection zone of the Tigirek Reserve, Altai Territory, Russia (Altai Mountains, Western Siberia, Northern Asia). A fruiting body of D. hyalothrix was found in “Dragunskaya” cave. Detailed descriptions, illustrations of basidiocarp and basidiospores are given. The main diagnostic features of Disciseda species are the size of the spore and the nature of the ornamentation. Spores of D. hyalothrix are globose, brown, grossly verrucose, (6) 6.5–7.5 μm in diameter, without ornamentations, without pedicels or rarely with colorless pedicels 4–6 (up to 10) μm. In the SEM, ornamentation in the form of powerful pyramidal tufts consisting of thin spines pressed together to 1–1.3 μm in height. We present a scanning electron micrograph study and morphological characteristic comparison of D. hyalothrix and other Disciseda species found in Eurasia, which currently includes 5 taxa. We first generated new sequences for rDNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and partly for LSU) of D. hyalothrix (NSK 1014099). The new record of D. hyalothrix broadens information on the ecology of the rare gasteromycete species, which was growing in the conditions of stony steppe communities. New sequence data for studied loci of rDNA will help clarify the phylogenetic relationships of species from the genera Disciseda and Bovista.

Keywords: gasteroid fungi – molecular data – morphology – puffballs – new sequences


5. Annotated checklist of Gymnopilus from Brazil

Authors: Fabrini FCSS, Wartchow F

Recieved: 03 October 2019, Accepted: 30 January 2020, Published: 06 February 2020

A checklist of species belonging to the genus Gymnopilus in Brazil is provided. The list, which includes all species recorded in Brazil prior to 2017, cites 22 species. Brief descriptions, distribution notes, and references are provided.

Keywords: Agaricales – Agaricomycetes – Neotropic – taxonomy


6. Biocontrol and plant growth promotion activities of endophytic and rhizospheric fungi from almond trees (Prunus dulcis) indigenous in the northeast of Iran

Authors: Rezvani V, Taheri P, Pourianfar HR, Drakhshan A

Recieved: 30 June 2019, Accepted: 09 December 2019, Published: 11 February 2020

Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora drechsleri are important soil borne pathogens which cause severe damages on almond (Prunus dulcis, Rosaceae) trees. Endophytic and rhizospheric fungi may be promising biocontrol agents, which could be applied against these destructive phytopathogens. However, scarce information is presently available regarding the endophytic and rhizospheric fungal communities of trees, especially almond. Thus, the present study for the first time was focused on investigating several endophytic and rhizospheric fungi from almond trees with the aim of evaluating their plant growth promotion and biocontrol potential against V. dahliae and P. drechsleri. Fifty-nine isolates were successfully obtained of which 26 isolates were selected based on colony morphologies. Antagonistic reactions between the isolates and the pathogens were tested using the dual culture method. The growth enhancement potential of the endophytes and rhizospheric fungi was also investigated for lentil and wheat seeds. The findings revealed that the rhizospheric isolates showed higher biological activities as compared to endophytic isolates (p≤0.05). The KoA1 isolate (identified as Aspergillus awamori) obtained from rhizosphere significantly prevented the P. drechsleri and V. dahliae growth. In addition, the KoA9 isolate (identified as Paraconiothyrium flavescens) obtained from rhizosphere significantly increased root and shoot growth of wheat seeds. The data presented revealed the potential of rhizospheric fungi of almond trees on increasing the growth of monocots, as well as their effect as biocontrol agents against fungal pathogens in vitro, which needs future in vivo investigations. 

Keywords: Biological control – Endophyte – Rhizosphere – Phytophthora drechsleri – Verticillium dahliae


7. How are basidiospore size measurements affected by drying?

Authors: Dramani R, Hegbe ADMT, Tabe A, Badou AS, Furneaux B, Ryberg M, Yorou NS

Recieved: 17 October 2019, Accepted: 04 February 2020, Published: 12 February 2020

Spore size plays a crucial role in the demarcation of fungal species. Spore size is measured from either fresh or, more frequently, dried fungal specimens. In the present study, we investigate the impact of drying on the basidiospore size of three ectomycorrhizal species, and the bias it can generate on the taxonomic identification of fungal species. We measured a total of 1109 basidiospores of Amanita masasiensis, 2322 basidiospores of Lactifluus gymnocarpoides, and 920 basidiospores of Russula congoana from fresh sporocarps and spore prints. After specimens and spore prints were dehydrated for 24h at 50°C, we measured 1200 basidiospores of A. masasiensis, 2348 basidiospores of L. gymnocarpoides and 1150 basidiospores of R. congoana. The effects of drying on length, width, and length/width quotient (Q) values were tested using a linear mixed model to control for inter-individual variation. Drying reduced the basidiospore length and width of A. masasiensis by 10% and 16% respectively, resulting in a 7% increase in the quotient Q, while both the length and width of basidiospores of L. gymnocarpoides and R. congoana were reduced by 3% and 6% respectively, with no change in Q. This study suggests that greater attention should be given to the condition of the spores when spore size is used as a taxonomically discriminative characteristic. This is especially relevant for the taxonomy of cryptic species, where other discriminative characteristics may be lacking.

Keywords: basidiospores size – dehydration – fungi – taxonomy


8. Use of biological control and bio-fertilization against Fusarium wilt disease and its effect on growth characteristics and tomato productivity

Authors: Khalil MA, Shimaa HFA

Recieved: 24 August 2019, Accepted: 20 December 2019, Published: 24 February 2020

In this research had tried control by application of biological control and biofertilizer of the pathogenic fungus causing Fusarium wilt of tomato under greenhouse and field conditions. In this, results indicated to treatment with Trichoderma harzianum, alone or biofertilizer dual inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense, proved more powerful in decreasing disease severity % of foliar yellowing and wilt or vascular browning by about (16.25 and 16.67%) and (8.75 and 10.71%), respectively of tomato cv Super-strain B, plants than other treatments and compared with control. On the other hand, previous treatment gave the highest, observed in case of inoculation with A. brasilense with T. harzianum, records of growth characters, i.e. plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, plant fresh weight and plant dry weight g/plant, by about (77.6 cm, 5.75/plant, 552.9 and 87.13g.) respectively, yield  and  yield  components  of  tomato  plants, i.e.  Number of fruits/plant, weight of one fruit (g), fruits yield/plant (kg) and fruits yield/plant (ton/fed) by about (14.8/plant, 113.4g, 2.07kg and 25.13 ton/fed) respectively compared with the other treatments and control. Also, in previous treatment gave the highest values observed in case of inoculation with A. brasilense with T. harzianum, of dehydrogenase activity (µg TPF/g dry soil/day), N2-ase activity (nmoles C6H2/g dry soil/hr) at flowering stage and increased phenols mg/g fresh weight and total soluble solids (TSS) of tomato c.v Super-strain B, plants compared with the other treatments and control.

Keywords: Trichoderma harzianum – vascular browning – biological control – pathogenic fungus – growth characteristics – tomato productivity


9. Screening of antimicrobial substances from mushrooms (Agaricales) of southern Brazil

Authors: Rosenberger MG, Paulert R, Cortez VG

Recieved: 04 September 2019, Accepted: 25 February 2020, Published: 27 February 2020

Mushrooms are a source of bioactive substances due to the synthesis of secondary metabolites, which are useful in the search of new substances for pharmaceutical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate extracts with antimicrobial potential of native South Brazilian mushrooms against pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Basidiomata of 14 mushroom species were collected, dried, grounded and extracted with methanol in the Soxhlet system. The antimicrobial activity was tested by agar diffusion and direct bioautography methods against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Six extracts inhibited the tested microorganisms, showing moderate sensitivity in the agar diffusion test. On the other hand, using the bioautography method, nine extracts presented activity and revealed ten antimicrobial substances, of which five are indicative of terpenes. Among the species investigated, to our knowledge, this is the first report of antimicrobial activity of Simocybe tucumana and Mycena euspeirea.


Keywords: antibacterial activity – basidiomycetes – Mycena euspeirea – natural products – Simocybe tucumana


10. Agaricus pocillator, a new record species from Mexico

Authors: Chen J, Enríquez-Bedolla JC, Rugolo, Llarena-Hernández RC

Recieved: 20 February 2020, Accepted: 02 March 2020, Published: 06 March 2020

Agaricus is a species-rich genus with nutritional and medicinal interest. Though the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus have been well advanced during the last decade, the species diversity of the genus has been little studied in Mexico. In the present study, we introduce A. pocillator as a new record species from Mexico based on both morphological characters and molecular data. The full description, line drawings and photos are provided. 

Keywords: Agaricaceae – taxonomy – ITS


11. Morphological, ultrastructural and phylogenetic study of Calvatia candida and Calvatia craniiformis reported from Northern western Ghat of India

Authors: Kshirsagar Y, Baghela A, Borde M

Recieved: 27 August 2019, Accepted: 29 February 2020, Published: 18 March 2020

Two species of Calvatia viz., Calvatia candida and Calvatia craniiformis were collected from Savitribai Phule Pune University campus, Pune, Maharashtra, India. They were identified based on morphological features of Basidiomata and basidiospore. The Scanning Electron Microscopy of spore shape and ornamentation of two species of Calvatia were observed. The basidiospores of Calvatia candida are pedicellate subglobose and spiny whereas pedicellate, globose and spiny ornamentation observed in Calvatia craniiformis. Both species were identified by using Internal Transcribed Spacer and the Large Subunit regions of the nuclear rDNA gene sequence analysis.

Keywords: ITS – LSU – Lycoperdaceae – SEM


12. Revealing new active and biotechnologically perspective producers of oxidative and cellulolytic enzymes among pure cultures of xylotrophic Agaricomycetes from the Southern Non-Chernozem zone of the European part of Russia

Authors: Shakhova NV, Volobuev SV

Recieved: 15 October 2019, Accepted: 17 March 2020, Published: 13 April 2020

A total of 60 fungal strains from 33 species of xylotrophic macrofungi (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) inhabiting on the territory of the State Natural Biosphere Reserve “Bryanskiy les” (Bryansk Oblast, European Russia) were analyzed by the method of rapid screening in order to determine the lignocellulolytic enzymes. As a result of the qualitative analysis, a group of fungi with the highest lignocellulolytic and degradation potential, including representatives of the families Fomitopsidaceae, Meruliaceae, Polyporaceae and Steccherinaceae (Polyporales), was revealed. For the first time Rhodofomes roseus was shown to be able to decolorize polyphenolic dye azure B. Strains of LE-BIN 3969 Rhodofomes roseus, LE-BIN 4122 Trametes hirsuta and LE-BIN 4123 Trametes ochracea, which are of high interest for quantitative analysis of their enzymatic potential and use in biotechnology, were selected.

Keywords: cellulases – discoloration – fungal biotechnology – ligninases – wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes


13. Cultivation of a wild strain of Auricularia cornea from Thailand

Authors: Thongklang N, Keokanngeun L, Taliam W, Hyde KD

Recieved: 10 June 2019, Accepted: 31 March 2020, Published: 13 April 2020

Auricularia (jelly fungi, ear mushroom) species are widely consumed, especially in Asia. Auricularia cornea is one of the cultivable species that was recently recorded from Thailand and is an edible mushroom used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In this study, a strain of Auricularia cornea was collected from northern Thailand, confirmed with morphology, molecular data and was cultivated in the laboratory. Strain MFLUCC18-0346 was grown on PDA medium and spawn was prepared using Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) medium. Fruiting bodies were obtained by rubber sawdust bag cultivation. We found that the wild strain of A. cornea produced fruiting bodies at 25±1°C and 75–85% humidity. The first primordia of A. cornea was produced on day 76. The average yield of A. cornea was 242±37.52 g and the biological efficiency was 72.46±11.23% with six flushes in three months. The mushroom could be commercially cultivated; however, further research is needed to develop suitable agriculture wastes for increasing production yields and later the species could be introduced to Thai market for cultivation and medicinal use.

Keywords: Auriculariaceae – Basidiomycota – fruiting test – medicinal mushroom – tropical mushroom


14. Estimation of physiological responses using two growth forms of lichens around coal-based Tanda Thermal Power Plant, Ambedkar Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Gupta N, Dwivedi SK, Upreti DK

Recieved: 03 February 2020, Accepted: 10 March 2020, Published: 07 May 2020

Present study has been promulgated to study pigment profile and chlorophyll degradation of lichen communities around thermal power plant. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, chlorophyll degradation was measured to evaluate the possible damage caused by pollutants of the area in lichens. In order to determine the impact of power plant, two morphologically diverse lichen species viz., Pyxine cocoes and Bacidia incongruens have been used for conducting biomonitoring studies around Tanda thermal power plant, Ambedkar Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh. Correlations of various physiological parameters in lichen P. cocoes showed significant correlation (at p<0.05) of chlorophyll a with chlorophyll b (0.985) and negatively correlated with protein content (-0.958); while total chlorophyll content also negatively correlated with protein (-0.956). Besides that total chlorophyll showed highly significant correlations (at p<0.01 level) with chlorophyll a (0.998) and chlorophyll b (0.994); protein also showed negative correlation with all physiological parameters in P. cocoes. While in B. incongruens carotenoid showed negative significant correlation with chlorophyll a (-0.973), chlorophyll b (-0.598) as well as total chlorophyll (-0.858) at p<0.05 level. Total chlorophyll showed significant correlation at p<0.05 level (0.987) while carotenoid had negatively correlated with chlorophyll degradation (-0.927). Protein content showed negative correlation with chlorophyll b (-0.065) and carotenoid (-0.175). The study revealed that chlorophyll and protein content are an efficient physiological parameter can be correlated with quality of air.

Overall pattern evident that both P. cocoes while B. incongruens showed more or less similar concentration of photosynthetic pigment and protein content. Both the lichen species showed increasing trend with the increasing distance from the thermal power plant.

Keywords: Biomonitoring – Environment – Lichen – Pollution – Thermal power plants


15. New genotypes of aflatoxigenic fungi from Egypt and the Philippines

Authors: AboDalam TH, Amra H, Sultan Y, Magan N, Carlobos-Lopez AL, Cumagun CJR, Yli-Mattila T

Recieved: 05 February 2020, Accepted: 05 May 2020, Published: 18 May 2020

Aflatoxins (AFs), mainly produced by Aspergillus section Flavi, are the major natural toxins of crops and commodities in hot climatic geographic regions. These toxins are considered as type A carcinogens. One hundred and sixty single spore isolates of A. section Flavi were isolated from two different geographical places, Egypt and the Philippines. A quarter (26.5%) of the isolates was able to produce AFs. Four chemotypes of aflatoxin-producing fungi were obtained. Surprisingly, all aflatoxin-producing A. nomius isolates produced higher amounts (2400-40400 ng ml-1) of total AFs (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) than the toxigenic A. flavus  isolates (<1200 ng ml-1). All isolates producing AFs gave PCR products with the ver-1/ver-2 and ordAF/ordAR primers, which amplify ver-1 and ordA genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. Based on PCR products of ver-1 gene, new genotypes of aflatoxigenic fungi were found which revealed the variability of AFs production between different isolates depending on the region of the isolation.

Keywords: PCR – aflatoxin – fungi – Aspergillus section Flavi


16. Morphology, pathogenicity and molecular identification of some Fusarium species within the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex from wheat in Syria

Authors: Zidan L, Jawdat D, Naffaa W

Recieved: 17 January 2020, Accepted: 11 May 2020, Published: 19 May 2020

Fusarium is a worldwide distributed fungal genus and includes different phytopathogenic species which are able to infect cereals among other crops. This study was carried out to identify and characterize the isolates of Fusarium spp. in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (Liseola section) through morphological and molecular approaches. A total of 105 isolates of Fusarium spp. were recovered from crown and roots of wheat plants, showing typical symptoms, collected from four Syrian provinces during 2017-2018. Seventeen isolates in the G. fujikuroi species complex were identified as F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. andiyazi based on morphological characteristics, and sequencing a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1-α) gene. The pathogenicity test showed that all recovered isolates of these three species were pathogenic, with low to moderate severity, on durum wheat seedlings under laboratory conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. andiyazi causing crown and root rot on wheat. 

Keywords: crown rot – first report – root rot – TEF1-α


17. Biodecolourization of Textile Dye and Wastewaters by Crude Laccase from Pleurotus florida ITDI 6003 Cultivated in Wheat Grains

Authors: Montiague EN, Guzman JPMD, Unciano NM, Panerio EG, Bigol UG, Castro IJL, Jose JPG, Mantaring SDA

Recieved: 14 August 2019, Accepted: 09 April 2020, Published: 19 May 2020

The continuous growth of textile industry in the Philippines resulted in an increase in the discharge of textile wastewater which includes environmental contaminants such as dyes. The current most common decolourization treatment of textile wastewater is through the use of chemicals, which in turn, also adds to environmental contamination. Thus, this study aims to employ biological treatment through the use of enzyme, particularly of crude laccase, extracted from Pleurotus florida ITDI 6003 grown on wheat grains. The crude laccase from P. florida ITDI 6003 yielded an enzyme activity of 5.36 U/mL based on the oxidation of 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). Furthermore, the crude laccase was able to significantly decolourize the textile dye Remazol Blue RGB, and four textile wastewaters originally collected from the dyeing facility of the Philippine Textile Research Institute (DOST-PTRI). UV-Vis spectrophotometric analyses of the laccase-treated textile dye and wastewater samples also showed decrease in absorbances at their respective specific λmax. Full wavescan analyses indicated hypsochromic shifts in the λmax as also observed on the changes in colour on the visual analyses of the treatment setups. The results show the potential of using crude laccase from P. florida ITDI 6003 in the decolourization of textile dye and wastewaters discharged from the textile industry.

Keywords: Biodecolourization – Laccase – Pleurotus florida – Textile Dye – Textile Wastewater


18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Musa spp. in western Cuba

Authors: Furrazola E, Torres–Arias Y, Herrera–Peraza RA, Fors RO, González–González S, Goto BT, Berbara RLL

Recieved: 03 October 2019, Accepted: 18 May 2020, Published: 12 June 2020

Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in banana and plantain fields in western Cuba is here reported. Thirty rhizosphere soil samples were collected and used for direct evaluation of the AMF community and establishment of trap cultures. AMF spores were extracted from the soil samples by wet sieving and decanting, and species were identified based on the morphology of the spores. Overall, 56 AMF morphospecies were differentiated within at least 10 genera. From the total number of morphospecies, 25 were identified up to the species level, and 31 were morphologically different from described species. From field samples, 42 morphospecies were verified, with predominance of the genera Acaulospora and Glomus. However, the most frequent species recovered directly from the field samples were Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Funneliformis geosporum. Additionally, 14 morphospecies were only obtained in the trap cultures, from which five could be identified up to the species level while the other nine corresponded to apparently undescribed species. It was concluded that banana and plantain fields in western Cuba have highly diverse communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Keywords: Agroecosystems – Banana plants – Diversity – Glomeromycota


19. The hygrophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricales, Hygrophoraceae) from Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa

Authors: Desjardin DE, Perry BA

Recieved: 10 March 2020, Accepted: 22 May 2020, Published: 12 June 2020

Five species of hygrophoroid fungi belonging to the genera Cuphophyllus and Hygrocybe are reported from the African island nation, Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. These taxa represent two new species (C. laranja, H. macambrarensis), one undetermined taxon, and two new distributional reports. Comprehensive descriptions, line drawings, color photographs, and comparisons with allied taxa based on morphology and molecular sequence data (ITS) are provided.

Keywords: Cuphophyllus – fungal diversity – Hygrocybe – mushrooms – Gulf of Guinea


20. The de novo production of halogenated hydroquinone metabolites by the Andean-Patagonian white-rot fungus Phylloporia boldo

Authors: Riquelme C, Candia B, Ruiz D, Herrera M, Becerra J, Pérez C, Rajchenberg M, Cabrera-Pardo JR

Recieved: 28 February 2020, Accepted: 17 June 2020, Published: 24 June 2020

The production of halogenated hydroquinone metabolites such as drosophilin A, drosophilin A methyl ether and chloroneb was investigated in the Andean-Patagonian fungus Phylloporia boldo. These chlorinated compounds were detected in both fruiting bodies and living cultures. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) quantification of these molecules was performed in liquid media giving similar values in comparison to previous reports. We observed the concentration of drosophilin A, drosophilin A methyl ether and chloroneb increased in liquid culture supplemented with KCl. Furthermore, chlorinated hydroquinone compounds were not detected using liquid media supplemented with KBr. Instead, brominated aromatic molecules were observed and quantified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We consider these results are relevant for the use of these halogenating microorganisms in biotransformation processes.

Keywords: Drosophilin A – drosophilin A methyl ether – organohalogens


21. Structure of soil fungi complexes associated with rhizosphere of woody plants of the Zailisky Alatau (Kazakhstan)

Authors: Rakhimova YV, Assylbek AM, Yermekova BD, Kyzmetova LA, Jetigenova UK

Recieved: 18 February 2020, Accepted: 29 May 2020, Published: 25 June 2020

In the rhizosphere of woody plants of the Zailisky Alatau 78 species of soil fungi were found. The largest number of fungal species in the rhizosphere was recorded in the Big Almaty gorge and Turgen. Dominant classes were Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Zygomycota. Their percent in Ajusai gorge was 100%, in the Small Almaty gorge 92.8%, in Turgen – 92.1%, in the Big Almaty gorge – 90.7%, in Prokhodnoe gorge – 72%. The greatest similarity of the species composition of soil fungi was found between the gorges Big Almaty and Turgen, Small Almaty and Prokhodnoe, Small Almaty and Ajusay. A low degree of similarity in species composition was found between the gorges Big Almaty and Ajusay, Big Almaty and Prokhodnoe, Ajusay and Turgen. The most common species in the complexes of soil fungi were Absidia spinosa, Mucor mucedo, and Purpureocillium lilacinum. The largest number of species of soil fungi was found in the rhizosphere of Picea schrenkiana (36 species, 22%), slightly less in the rhizosphere of Malus sieversii (18 species, 11%), Crataegus spp. (18, 11%) and Sorbus tianschanica (19, species, 11%), the smallest in the rhizosphere of Quercus robur (6 species, 4%) and Pinus sylvestris (5 species, 3%).

Keywords: Armeniaca vulgaris – Betula pendula – Crataegus spp. – Juniperus spp. – Malus sieversii – Picea schrenkiana – Pinus sylvestris – Populus spp. – Populus tremula – Quercus robur – Salix spp. – similarity – Sorbus tianschanica – species composition


22. Antiviral activity of total polysaccharide fraction of water and ethanol extracts of Pleurotus pulmonarius against the influenza A virus

Authors: Vlasenko VA, Ilyicheva TN, Teplyakova TV, Svyatchenko SV, Asbaganov SV, Zmitrovich IV, Vlasenko AV

Recieved: 02 December 2019, Accepted: 11 June 2020, Published: 25 June 2020

New data of antiviral properties of species of the genus Pleurotus are given in the article.  Seven samples of one species of pleurotoid fungi, Pleurotus pulmonarius, collected in various habitats and substrates of the Novosibirsk Region, was studied for antiviral activity against the current highly pathogenic strain of influenza virus A/California/07/09(H1N1pdm). As a result, it was found that ethanol extracts from fungi exhibit a more pronounced antiviral effect than aqueous extracts. In this connection, ethanol extraction is a more promising method for extracting the total polysaccharide fraction of fungi, in order to create promising preparations with antiviral properties. Fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius are potential sources of drugs, with antiviral action against socially significant viral infections caused by the influenza virus. Fruit bodies and cultivated mycelium of P. pulmonarius are a promising source of extracts with fungal polysaccharides.

Keywords: antiviral properties – pleurotoid fungi – fungal polysaccharides – new sequences – influenza A virus – Novosibirsk Region


23. Mentha piperita extract, a potential antifungal agent against Candida albicans and Candida krusei

Authors: Audreylia E, Budiman Y, Surja SS

Recieved: 22 January 2020, Accepted: 17 June 2020, Published: 30 June 2020

Along with the increasing number of drug resistance of Candida sp. and also high mortality of candidiasis, a study on alternative treatments must be carried out. Mentha piperita is known to have potent antifungal activity. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the antifungal effect and its mechanism of action of Mentha piperita extract (peppermint oil) on the growth of Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and ATCC 90028, and Candida krusei. Peppermint oil was extracted from Mentha piperita leaf by steam distillation. Disk diffusion method was conducted according to CLSI M44 and germ tube test was done to assess its antifungal activity and mechanism. Inhibition zone of peppermint oil against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 was 31.67 mm, Candida albicans ATCC 90028 was 17 mm and Candida krusei was 43.67 mm. Germ tube test showed a reduction of germ tube formation with the increase of peppermint oil concentration (p=0.024). In conclusion, Mentha piperita extract has the potential to be developed as an antifungal against Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Its mechanism of action could be inhibition of germ tube formation.

Keywords: candidiasis – drug resistance – germ tube – inhibition zone – peppermint oil


24. Hymenochaetaceae from Paraguay: revision of the family and new records

Authors: Maubet Y, Campi M, Robledo G

Recieved: 06 February 2020, Accepted: 26 June 2020, Published: 09 July 2020

A synopsis of species of Hymenochaetaceae from five departments of Paraguay (Alto Paraguay, Boquerón, Central, Cordillera and Paraguarí) is presented. Thirteen species from nine genera are reported, of which eleven are recorded for the first time. Descriptions and macro- and microscopic illustrations are presented for each species. Discussions on their taxonomy and ecology are provided.

Keywords: fungal diversity – Hymenochaetales – neotropical polypores – taxonomy


25. HR-LC-MS based metabolic profiling of Fusarium solani a fungal endophyte associated with Avicennia officinalis

Authors: Sonawane HB, Borde MY, Nikalje GC, Terkar A, Math SK

Recieved: 31 March 2020, Accepted: 08 July 2020, Published: 23 July 2020

Endophytic fungi form associations with plants, and often assist plant growth and produce bioactive metabolites, which confer resistance against plant pathogens and other stress factors.  Mangrove plants being the flora of marshy and saline areas are highly tolerant to salinity and are rich in secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated and identified Fusarium solani a fungal endophyte from leaves of mangrove, Avicennia officinalis. This endophyte was studied for metabolic profiling and further identification of bioactive compounds using HR-LC-MS based metabolomics. The fungal extract showed the presence of several anti-cancer compounds like 3-Pyridylacetic acid, Aloe-emodin, Antipyrine, Mitoxantrone, Sulfabenzamide etc. This metabolomic study highlights the potential of mangrove associated endophytic fungi for the production of industrially and medicinally important secondary metabolites.

Keywords: Endophytic fungi – Metabolomics – Mangroves – Secondary metabolites


26. Antimicrobial activity of Anthostomelloides leucospermi TBT10, an endophytic fungus isolated from Taxus baccata stems against human pathogens

Authors: Zerroug A, Sadrati N, Demirel R, Bakli S, Harzallah D

Recieved: 24 November 2019, Accepted: 16 July 2020, Published: 17 August 2020

The objective of this study is to identify and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungus TBT10 isolate from Taxus baccata stems. Morphological and molecular identification allowed us to identify this isolate as belonging to the Anthostomelloides leucospermi species. After preliminary screening by agar diffusion method which showed the inhibitory potential of TBT10 against the test bacteria, an optimization of the culture medium, the type of fermentation as well as the extraction solvent was carried out. The Potato Dextrose Agar was the best medium giving the highest production of secondary metabolites with average inhibition zones of 23.25 mm; the liquid culture was the one that gave the best activity (10.13 mm). Regarding the solvent, ethyl acetate extract was the solvent allowing the best extraction of the active molecules with average inhibition zones of 15.88 mm. Ethyl acetate extract was active against all used Gram positive bacteria and the largest inhibition was obtained against Micrococcus luteus (28.5 mm), but Gram negative bacteria were all resistant. MICs were ranged from 0.5625 to 4.50 mg/mL, while the MBCs were between 0.5625 to >4.50 mg/mL and the effect of extract was bactericidal against all bacteria except against Enterococcus faecalis 4 and Enterococcus faecium 1 where it was bacteriostatic. Time kill kinetic of ethyl acetate extract was bactericidal against Enteroccocus faecium 2 after 1 and 24 hours for the MIC×4 (4.50 mg/mL) and MIC×2 (2.25 mg/mL) concentrations respectively. Whereas against Streptococcus pyogenes; the bactericidal effect was observed after 1, 4and 12 hours of contact with MIC×4 (2.25 mg/mL), MIC×2 (1.125 mg/mL) and MIC (0.5625 mg/mL) respectively. TBT10 ethyl acetate extract can be a promising source for production of biologically active molecules.

Keywords: Biological activities – endophytes – medicinal plant – secondary metabolites – time kill


27. Some noteworthy records of Helvella from Turkey based on morphology and DNA sequence data

Authors: Kaygusuz O, Türkekul İ, Battistin E

Recieved: 10 February 2020, Accepted: 19 July 2020, Published: 17 August 2020

In the present study, current information based on morphological characters and DNA sequence (nrITS) data is given on some uncommon or noteworthy Ascomycetes species collected from different geographic regions of Turkey. First phylogenetic analysis based on nrITS data of Helvella fibrosa and H. macropus the rare and little-known species was performed in Turkey by this study. Also, the nrITS sequence of H. fibrosa was uploaded to current databases for the first time. Detailed morphological description, macro photographs and detailed drawings of micro structures of the two species studied have been presented, and the ecology and distributions of each species has been given.

Keywords: ecology – Mediterranean macrofungi – Pezizales – phylogeny – rare species – taxonomy – Turkish mycobiota


28. Mycochemical screening, antioxidant evaluation and assessment of bioactivities of Xylaria papulis: a newly reported macrofungi from Paracelis, Mountain Province, Philippines

Authors: De Leon AM, Diego EO, Domingo LKF, Kalaw SP

Recieved: 23 April 2020, Accepted: 21 July 2020, Published: 19 August 2020

Macrofungi is a diverse group of organisms that are known to be utilized by ancient people since earliest times for a number of their functions. In the Philippines, macrofungi have been part of the horticultural diversification of the people and were used by ethnic communities across the country. Xylaria papulis collected from Paracelis, Mountain Province have been assessed for its mycochemical, antioxidant, antibacterial, teratogenic and cytotoxic activities. Results showed that X. papulis exhibited secondary metabolites such as essential oil, triterpenes, coumarines, anthraquinones, tannins, flavonoids, anthrones, fatty acid, phenols, steroids and alkaloids. The recorded DPPH radical scavenging activity is 55.67%, however, it is lower than catechin with 71.13%. On the contrary, X. papulis exhibited high total phenolic content of 43.17 mg GAE/g. Moreover, the ethanolic extract of X. papulis showed a mean zone of inhibition ranging from 16-18 mm after 24 hours of incubation which is interpreted as an intermediate effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, the teratogenic activity to the developing Danio rerio embryo showed that growth retardation, and head and tail malformations are the most notable effect. Mortality rates of the embryos were significantly high due to exposure to different concentrations of the X. papulis ethanol extract and the hatchability was completed after 48 hours for the concentrations ≤250 ppm. Abnormal heart beat rates, as well as pericardial edema causing weak and slow heart beats was also noted suggesting defective cardiac function and cardio-toxicity. Cytotoxicity was observed in all the treatments ranging from 40% to 90% mortality. The highest mean percentage mortality of 90% was recorded in 1250 ppm.  Brine shrimp lethality assay showed an LC50 of 218.507 ppm, which indicates that the X. papulis ethanolic extract is highly toxic.

Keywords: antibacterial – antioxidant – cytotoxicity – mycochemical – teratogenicity


29. A checklist of lichens known from the Philippines

Authors: Paguirigan JAG, dela Cruz TEE, Santiago KAA, Gerlach A, Aptroot A

Recieved: 03 April 2020, Accepted: 19 July 2020, Published: 19 August 2020

Lichens are formed by the symbiotic partnership between fungi and photoautotrophic algae or cyanobacteria. Lichen species are found all over the world and may grow under diverse and extreme environments and may colonize substrates such as rocks, bark or woody plants, leaves of vascular plants, soil, mosses and other lichen thalli including artificial substrates such as concrete, glass, metals, and plastics. Despite the high diversity of lichens in the tropics, very little information is known about them particularly in the Philippines. So far, the most comprehensive listing of lichens for the country was done by Gruezo in the 70’s when he reported 1,108 published taxa distributed in 137 genera, 789 species, 3 subspecies, 153 varieties, 28 formae, and 1 subforma. In recent years, lichenology in the Philippines has progressed beyond species list to diversity, bioactivity, and biomonitoring. Several papers have documented the occurrence and distribution of lichen species from various parts of the Philippines including the Cordillera and Ilocos regions, Bataan, Calabarzon, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Negros Occidental, Bukidnon, and Palawan. This paper presents an update on the lichen checklist for the Philippines based on publications in the 40 years following Gruezo’s publication in 1979. These studies updated the list of species of lichens in the Philippines to 1,262 published taxa with 1,234 validated species names distributed into 65 families, 229 genera, 10 subspecies, 92 varieties, 15 formae, and 1 subforma.

Keywords: archipelago – compendium – species list – taxonomy – tropical lichens


30. Occurrence and diversity of myxomycetes along the forest edges of Mt. Isarog National Park, Camarines Sur, Philippines

Authors: Eloreta MFBM, Policina MS, dela Cruz TEE

Recieved: 24 April 2020, Accepted: 17 July 2020, Published: 24 August 2020

Forest edges support a unique biodiversity distinct from the inner part of the forest. While species diversity of plants and animals were widely reported along forest edges, little is known about its microbiota, particularly myxomycetes. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and diversity of myxomycetes found along forest edges in Mt. Isarog National Park in the Bicol Region, Philippines. Ground leaf litter (GL) and decaying twigs (TW) were collected from three sampling localities and used for the setting up of moist chambers. Here, a total of 540 moist chamber cultures were prepared. From these, we recorded 24 identifiable species belonging to 10 genera, namely, Arcyria. Comatricha, Cribraria, Diachea, Diderma, Didymium, Hemitrichia, Perichaena, Physarum, and Stemonitis. Of these, 11 species were shared by all sampling localities. We observed differences in myxomycete composition between the three forest edges.

Keywords: forest edge – forest fragmentation – slime molds – species list – tropical forests


31. The genus Floccularia (Agaricaceae, Basidiomycota) in India

Authors: Malik NA, Saini MK, Wani NA

Recieved: 09 April 2020, Accepted: 13 August 2020, Published: 03 September 2020

The present study was undertaken to understand and explore the diversity of genus Floccularia collected from the forests of South Kashmir (India). This genus was not earlier reported by any mycologist from India. For the investigation of these fungi, fungal forays were undertaken especially in the spring, summer and autumn season to various forests in South Kashmir, India. These forays resulted various taxa of the genus Floccularia. The investigated taxa were identified as Floccularia straminea f. alba, F. straminea, F. luteovirens, F. pitkinensis and F.straminea var. americana. The morphoanatomical characteristics of these taxa were studied. In this paper the taxonomic description, distribution and habitat of the collected Floccularia have been discussed.

Keywords: Fungi – South Kashmir – Taxonomy – Taxonomic Key


32. Effects of Trichoderma on growth and yield of wheat and barley and its survival ability on roots and amended rock phosphate growing substrates

Authors: Kribel S, Qostal S, Ouazzani Touhami A, Selmaoui K, Chliyeh M, Benkirane R, Achbani EH, Douira A

Recieved: 03 April 2020, Accepted: 25 August 2020, Published: 16 September 2020

The isolates TR-B 98 (2) and TR-B 98 (3) from the phosphate mines of Morocco and the isolate Trichoderma asperellum were tested for their ability to survive in the soil and stimulate the growth of wheat plants (soft wheat and durum wheat) and barley on a Mamora (SM) sand-based growing medium modified with increasing concentrations of natural phosphate.Trichoderma isolates have shown positive effects on the germination of wheat seeds (soft and hard) and barley, on the growth and yield of plants growing on substrates containing 0%, 25% and 50% phosphate natural. However, their effect was less on plants growing on substrates containing 75 and 100% natural phosphate.They have also shown their ability to survive in different growing media with differing colonization percentages of straw fragments and roots which increases with time. However, the number of units forming Trichoderma colonies per gram of soil has decreased over time.

Keywords: Barley – colonization – growing substrate – growth – rock phosphate – Trichoderma – wheat – yield


33. Fungal enzymatic degradation of industrial effluents – A review

Authors: Vara S, Karnena MK

Recieved: 20 March 2020, Accepted: 15 August 2020, Published: 17 September 2020

Environmental and economic affable technology that is mechanized by the enzymes of microbes is bioremediation. Microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and plant life produce large number of digestive enzymes that has been researched and reported regarding their involvement in degrading the persistent pollutants which are lethal to human life. Fungal enzymes possess advantages over additional resources owing to their applicability and sustenance, even in deviant and unfavorable environmental circumstances. Research in exploring these enzymes helped a lot in contributing towards sustainable development of bioprocess technology to reduce the noxiousness of the pollutants. This review is an attempt offering descriptive information on the digestive enzymes from fungi, their application in degrading wide variety of contaminants. Advanced methods like using immobilized fungal cells or enzymes in beads or carriers have received good success and thus future holds promise for development of genes required in cloning for the decolorization and decomposition of dyes as well as bioengineered fungi that can utilize pollutants or various industrial effluents as substrates.

Keywords: Bioremediation – Enzymes – Enzyme activity – Extracellular enzymes – fungal degradation – Laccases – Lipases and Peroxidases


34. New locality records of Trichoglossum hirsutum (Geoglossales: Geoglossaceae) based on molecular analyses, and prediction of its potential distribution in Turkey

Authors: Kaygusuz O, Eser Y, Çolak ÖF

Recieved: 10 February 2020, Accepted: 03 September 2020, Published: 17 September 2020

Trichoglossum hirsutum, a rare and noteworthy species in the genus Trichoglossum, has been previously collected only from Black Sea Region in Turkey. This work presents new findings on distribution of four specimens identified as T. hirsutum, the second record from Aegean and Mediterranean Region of Turkey, using morphology and nrITS sequence analysis. In addition, T. hirsutum was identified within forest dominated by the relict endemic Liquidambar orientalis, the first reported association with this host. Detailed morphological description, macro photographs and drawings of micro structures of the species studied have been presented. The potential distribution map for T. hirsutum was produced by maximum entropy (MaxEnt) analyses. Twenty environmental variables were used to model its distribution and potential habitat. The relative importance of the environmental variables for modeling was evaluated using the Jackknife test. Model performance was evaluated using repeated 90/10 training/test data partitions using the area under curve (AUC). The obtained model was strongly supported by measurements. Our study found that solar lighting index, diurnal temperature range and ruggedness played a key role in the distribution of T. hirsutum.

Keywords: Ascomycota – biogeographic distribution – fungal diversity – MaxEnt – Mediterranean fungi – phylogeny


35. Growing of Polyporus umbellatus

Authors: Pasailiuk MV

Recieved: 24 December 2019, Accepted: 05 September 2020, Published: 08 October 2020

Polyporus umbellatus is a valuable edible and medicinal fungus. Growth of two P. umbellatus strains 2510 and 2511 was studied on various plant substrates and their compositions. Fruit bodies of P. umbellatus were produced after successful mycelial colonization of the substrates with added freshly fallen oak leaves, wheat and sunflower seed shells. Using this growing method, the small fruit bodies (2.5 × 3.5 cm, 60–70 g) of P. umbellatus, strain 2511, developed on day 78, including 25 days of cultivation on MEA, 35 days of cultivation on substrate containing 50 g of wheat grain and sunflower husk with ratio 80:20, and 18 days cultivation on substrate containing 600 g freshly fallen oak leaves.

Keywords: fruiting body – mycelial growth – plant substrate


36. Cultivation of wild indigenous Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus subrufescens from Pakistan

Authors: Siddiqui WN, Bashir H, Khalid AN

Recieved: 29 February 2020, Accepted: 10 September 2020, Published: 27 October 2020

Cultivation potential of two wild indigenous species i.e. Agaricus bisporus (W-01) and A. subrufescens (KH 407) was estimated. Species were collected from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of Pakistan. Mycelial growth was obtained at Compost Extract Agar medium, proceeded for spawn production using wheat and sorghum grains. Wheat straw based mushroom compost supplemented with chicken manure, urea and gypsum was prepared for spawning. Temperature optimization was done at two temperatures of 20℃ and 28℃. Spawn run rate was maximum for both species at low temperature. Agaricus subrufescens (KH 407) is characterized by crystal like exudates in its cultures. Cultivation trails were successful yielding large fruit bodies of A. bisporus (W-01) and primordial formation in A. subrufescens (KH 407). Production rate of fruiting bodies was higher in A. bisporus (W-01) as compared to A. subrufescens (KH 407).

Keywords: Casing – native species – Pin heads – Spawn run rate – Temperature optimization


37. Species listing of macrofungi on the Bugkalot Tribal community in Alfonso Castañeda, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

Authors: Torres ML, Tadiosa ER, Reyes RG

Recieved: 18 May 2020, Accepted: 21 September 2020, Published: 29 October 2020

This study was conducted to determine the different macroscopic fungi present in the Bugkalot tribal community in Alfonso Castañeda, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. A total of 45 macrofungi belonging to 6 orders, 15 families and 25 genera was collected, identified and described in the taxonomic checklist. Twenty-five species were able to identify up to species level. Most of the macrofungi are wood-rotters. Family Polyporaceae was recorded as the most abundant macrofungi family present in the area. Out of all macrofungi, 25 species were used by the Bugkalots as either as food or medicine. The Bugkalot tribal community in Alfonso Castañeda, Nueva Vizcaya is a habitat for the different macrofungal species. Thus, further studies should be done on other season to determine the species richness and distribution of macrofungi in the community. Also, these macrofungi is needed to be exploited for possible utilization as it may have a promising bioactivity potential especially for the non-edible ones.

Keywords: Bugkalots – edible mushroom – indigenous community – medicinal mushroom – taxonomy


38. Efficacy of Arcopilus cupreus as biological agent to control Phytophthora spp. causing root rot of mandarin citrus

Authors: Noireung P, To-anun C, Nguanhom J

Recieved: 04 August 2020, Accepted: 02 October 2020, Published: 29 October 2020

Citrus root rot causes very high impact on quality and quantity of mandarin cultivation. Phytophthora spp. is root rot causing pathogens. The Phytophthora spp. were isolated from soil and diseased roots of mandarin plants in Chiang Mai province (northern Thailand) and confirmed pathogenicity using detached leaf technique. Arcopolis cupreus species with antifungal activity is an effective strategy for biological control of fungal pathogens. Arcopolis cupreus BN21 was isolated from peanut pods from agricultural waste materials and the isolate was studied in vitro, against the isolated root rot pathogen Phytophthora spp. On dual culture, clear zone of Arcopilus cupreus BN21 against Phytophthora spp. showed antagonistic activity against pathogens. Moreover, the mycelia of BN21 attached to the pathogen hyphae and caused the cell walls degradation of pathogen. Fractional ethanol extract also showed the growth inhibition of the pathogen as well. Adding A. cupreus BN21 suspension into the soil showed the reduction of the root infection form Phytophthora sp.

Keywords: antagonistic effect – Biological control – Chaetomium – Citrus root rot – Rhizosphere pathogens


39. Effects of refined sugar and combination of light and agitation on yields and mycelial morphology of Grifola frondosa AM cultivated in submerged culture

Authors: Aramrak A, Maketon-Wawro W, Maketon C

Recieved: 09 July 2020, Accepted: 18 November 2020, Published: 17 December 2020

Grifola frondosa or Maitake mushroom is well known for its medicinal value such as anticancer, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. This work aims to investigate the effects of refined sugar (referred as sucrose; a low-cost substrate) as an alternative carbon source and light combined with agitation conditions on the mycelial growth, polysaccharides production, and fungal morphology. The optimum sucrose concentration for G. frondosa AM fermentation was detected at 6% (w/v), producing high yields of biomass and bioactive polysaccharides. Cultivation of G. frondosa AM fungus in the absence of light with flask rotation at 120 rpm resulted in rapid growth of mycelium and β-glucans as high as 29% (w/w). Mycelial morphology in a flask shaking condition displayed various formations as filamentous to spherical shape, while at static condition it only exhibited mycelium-matted formation. Furthermore, cultivation of G. frondosa AM in the dark can alter the mycelial morphology from loosely long cylindrical to tight packing structure analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). 

Keywords: Beta-glucan – Biomass – Dark – Endo/exopolysaccharides – Maitake mushroom – Mycelium – Sucrose


40. Bio-control potentiality of Penicillium multicolor Grig.-Man. and Porad., against important root pathogens

Authors: Nair B, Abraham D, Saranya K, Mallikarjunaswamy GE

Recieved: 28 May 2020, Accepted: 03 December 2020, Published: 18 December 2020

Penicillium multicolor a soil-borne fungus was evaluated for its activity against root pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii. In vitro plate assay exhibited mycelia inhibition of the pathogens on PDA medium. Microscopic analysis revealed conidiophores and conidia deformations and mycelia piercing in the case of F. oxysporum where as mycelia coiling and cytoplasmic disintegration resulted for S. rolfsii. Rhizosphere competence of P. multicolor where sterile paddy straw segments placed at different centimetres up to 7cm depth to which 40ml of 2 x 106 conidial suspensions were poured and determined at 21 days of incubation exhibited mycelia growth up to 6 cm depth but observed very low colonisation frequency rate, 22%. In vitro root colonisation of P. multicolor and pathogens was studied for Teak and Mahogany seedlings. 2 x 105 and 2 x 106 conidial suspensions of pathogens and the bio-agent respectively at different concentrations v/v (1pathogen:1 biological agent and 1 pathogen: 5 biological agent) were tested and 1:5 ratio was found to be effective where complete suppression of pathogens were observed. The present study exerted on the further standardisation of biological agent for their success in field application.

Keywords: Bio-agent – Colonisation – In vitro assay – Root pathogens – Saprophytic ability


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Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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    Guizhou University
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    People’s Republic of China