Volume 7 - Issue 4

Article Number 1

Identification and diversity of the fruticose lichen Usnea in Kalinga, Luzon Island, Philippines


Galinato MGM, Mangubat CB, Leonor DS, Cababa GRC, Cipriano BPS, Santiago KAA

Received 08 April 2017
Accepted 12 June 2017
Published Online 24 October 2017
Corresponding Author Mark Gabriel M. Galinato – e-mail – markgabrielgalinato@gmail.com


The mountains of Kalinga are home to countless unprecedented organisms. Its cool temperature and high elevation provide the perfect niche for such organisms to survive and these include the lichens. Kalinga harbors a wide variety of lichens stretching from crustose, foliose and fruticose types. Interestingly, the genus Usnea is one of the most commonly found fruticose lichens in the northern part of the Philippines. However, these organisms remain neglected and hence limited studies have been document. In fact, not a single species of Usnea has been recorded in the province of Kalinga. In this study, 289 Usnea samples were collected from four out of eight municipalities of Kalinga. Following published identification keys, 25 species were identified using the conventional morphological characterization and thalline spot test. Furthermore, the diversity of Usnea in the province was also determined through the use of biodiversity indices (i.e., Shannon-Weiner index & Pielou’s index) accounting for the diversity, evenness and dominance of species. In this study, the municipality of Pasil shelters the most diverse Usnea species (H = 2.696), while Balbalan has the highest species evenness (e = 0.920).

Keywords distribution – diversity index– fungal diversity – lichen taxonomy
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Article Number 2

Ethnomycological survey of Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana


Yafetto L and Osei-Bonsu V

Received 23 June 2017
Accepted 02 October 2017
Published Online 24 October 2017
Corresponding Author Levi Yafetto – e-mail – lyafetto@ucc.edu.gh


This study aimed to survey the ethnomycological knowledge of residents of Cape Coast Metropolis, an indigenous, but cosmopolitan community, south of Ghana. First, one hundred and fifty questionnaires were randomly administered to members of the metropolis to survey their knowledge about fungi. Second, 75 natives of selected indigenous communities within the metropolis were orally interviewed to evaluate their indigenous beliefs and utilization of fungi. Results suggest that most respondents are familiar with fungi, notably mushrooms (locally called mre) and the baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Paradoxically, most respondents agreed that fungi are plants. Most respondents disagreed that all fungi are edible, but agreed that some are edible, others poisonous and medicinal. An overwhelming majority of respondents agreed that yeast is used in baking, and that yeast found in palm wine is responsible for its alcoholic content. The study revealed most respondents agree fungi cause candidiasis, some skin infections and that worms cause ringworm (dermatophytosis or tinea). One interesting finding also is that whereas the elite read about fungi, ethnomycological knowledge among the natives is still transmitted through cultural practices and folklore. Responses from the natives in the indigenous communities largely corroborated most of the responses from respondents to whom questionnaires were administered. The natives identified at least one wild edible mushroom with its local name, and are mostly involved in their collection. They use the wild edible mushrooms for food and sell some for household income.

Keywords Ethnomycology – fungi – indigenous community – indigenous knowledge – mushrooms
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Article Number 3

Antibacterial activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Agaricomycetes collected in Northeast Brazil


Ferreira-Silva V, Gusmão NB, Gibertoni TB

Received 20 June 2017
Accepted 06 September 2017
Published Online 07 November 2017
Corresponding Author Tatiana B. Gibertoni – e-mail – tbgibertoni@hotmail.com

Agaricomycetes produce bioactive substances with antibiotic, antiallergic, anti–inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antiatherogenic, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic anti–immunoprotective properties. However, there have been few studies on material collected in Brazil. Thus, the current study aimed to improve the knowledge concerning the antibacterial potential of Agaricomycetes in the country by researching material collected in Northeast Brazil. Twenty one cultures deposited in Micoteca URM of UFPE and nine extracts from fresh basidiomata were tested. Extracts of the basidiomata and the cultures were obtained with ethyl acetate, which were solubilized at a concentration (1:10 v/v). The preliminary tests with the 30 samples (21 cultures and nine extracts of fresh basidiomata) were performed against eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus, seven of which were resistant to oxacillin (ORSA), using block agar. Thirteen samples showed antibacterial activity, with inhibition between 9–24 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) from 0.18–147 µg/mL, Fomitopsis cupreorosea (URM 6830), Ganoderma multiplicatum (URM 6975), G. parvulum (URM 2948), G. orbiforme (URM87741), Grammothele lineata (URM6827), Rigidoporus lineatus (URM 6828), R. microporus (URM 6878), Stereum ostrea (URM 6973, URM 87848) being the most significant.

Keywords antimicrobian – Fomitopsis – Ganoderma – Grammothele – Rigidoporus – Stereum
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Article Number 4

Panaeolus antillarum (Basidiomycota, Psathyrellaceae) from wild elephant dung in Thailand


Desjardin DE and Perry BA

Received 14 August 2017
Accepted 06 November 2017
Published Online 08 November 2017
Corresponding Author Dennis E. Desjardin – e-mail – ded@sfsu.edu

Panaeolus antillarum is reported from material collected on wild elephant dung in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. This new distribution report is supported with morphological and molecular sequence (ITS) data, line drawings, colour photographs and a comparison with material from the Antilles. 

Keywords agarics – coprophilous fungi – fungal diversity – taxonomy
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About CREAM Journal

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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