Volume 6 - Issue 2


Article Number 1
Title

Ethnomycological survey of the Kalanguya indigenous community in Caranglan, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Authors

De Leon AM, Kalaw SP, Dulay RM, Undan JR, Alfonzo DO, Undan JQ, Reyes RG

Received 04 March 2016
Accepted 03 May 2016
Published Online 19 May 2016
Corresponding Author Angeles M. De Leon – angelesdeleon71@yahoo.com
Abstract

We documented the indigenous beliefs and utilization of macrofungi by the Kalanguya tribe. To perform the ethnomycological survey of macrofungi utilized by the Kalanguya indigenous community in Sitio Binbin, Brgy. General Luna, Carranglan, Nueva Ecija, the community members and their chieftain were asked to answer survey questionnaires pertaining to their beliefs and knowledge on mushroom utilization, collection and cultivation. Then, collection of the utilized macrofungi were performed during the rainy season. Results showed that most of indigenous people knew about mushrooms, which they locally called as bagel and buo, and utilized for food. There were 36 species claimed by the community as edible, however, only 10 species were obtained during the collection.  Based on molecular identification, five mushrooms were identified to species level, namely: Meripilus giganteus, Scleroderma citrinum, Leucoagaricus cepaestipes, Podocypha brasiliensis and Russula virescens, while one mushroom was identified to genus level (Microporus sp.). One interesting finding is that one species of mushroom is used as insect repellant, which is unique since most macrofungi are utilized either as food or medicine. The community does not have any indigenous beliefs when it comes to collection, cultivation as well as utilization. They merely collect the macrofungi from the mountain and utilized them for food or sell them in the market

Keywords Ethnomycology – indigenous community – Kalanguya – macrofungi – mushroom
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Article Number 2
Title

A preliminary study of the ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with banj oak and chir pine in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

Authors

Nautiyal A, Ben Hassine Ben Ali M, Ramesh K, Rawat GS, Stephenson SL

Received 29 January 2016
Accepted 27 May 2016
Published Online 15 June 2016
Corresponding Author Ankush Nautiyal – ankushn@uark.edu
Abstract

The assemblages of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) and banj oak (Quercus leucotrichophora) in the Garhwal Himalaya were characterized using molecular techniques. The present study is one of the first efforts in India to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi from DNA extracted from root-tips. A total of 23 taxa were recorded, and 15 of these were taxa known to be ectomycorrhizal. Eleven ectomycorrhizal taxa were recorded from banj oak and six from chir pine. Only two taxa (Russula cerolens and an unidentified member of the Russulaceae) were recorded from both types of trees. In addition to fungi identified from root-tips, five other taxa of ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from fruiting bodies collected in forests dominated by either banj oak or chir pine.

Keywords DNA sequences – Garhwal – India – macrofungi – root tips – Russulaceae
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Article Number 3
Title

Diversity of agaric mycota of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

Authors

Senthilarasu G, Kumaresan V

Received 13 January 2016
Accepted 27 May 2016
Published Online 15 June 2016
Corresponding Author Senthilarasu G – senthilarasug28@gmail.com
Abstract

The morpho-taxonomy of 15 agaric species belonging to Agaricales collected from dipterocarp forests of Western Ghats of Karnataka is briefly described, discussed and their geographic distribution in India is presented. Of these, Crepidotus payettensis is reported for the first time from India. Cyptotrama asprata, Hygrocybe acutoconica, H. alwisii, Oudemansiella furfuracea, Hypholoma subviride and Lactocollybia epia are reported for the first time from Karnataka State. The taxonomy of Oudemansiella furfuracea and Hypholoma subviride contravening to the current name in Index Fungorum is discussed. In addition, a checklist of agarics comprising of 121 species in 55 genera reported from Western Ghats of Karnataka is also provided on the basis of published sources. Overall, 132 species in 60 genera belonging to Agaricales, Polyporales and Russulales are presented in this paper.

Keywords Basidiomycetes – bibliography – dipterocarp forests – mushroom taxonomy– tropical fungi
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Article Number 4
Title

Proximate composition and cytotoxicity of single cell protein enriched rich bran

Authors

Ganado LS, Undan JR, Valentino MJG

Received 04 April 2016
Accepted 26 May 2016
Published Online 21 June 2016
Corresponding Author Mary Jhane G. Valentino – maryjhanevalentino@yahoo.com.ph
Abstract

Single cell protein or mycoprotein does not only enrich crude protein content but also enhances the carbohydrate, lipids, minerals, and other nutritional attributes of the substrates. Thus, the conduct of the present study to evaluate the proximate composition (moisture content, crude fat, crude fiber and ash content, total carbohydrates and total energy) of the endophytic fungi treated rice bran.

Nine species of endophytic fungi associated with bamboo (Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum, Monascus ruber, Fusarium semitectum, Fusarium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 2) were used to improve the proximate composition of the rice bran. Results revealed significant increase in the moisture, crude fiber, crude fat and ash content while decrease in total energy and total carbohydrates were recorded. Fusarium semitectumtreated rice bran obtained the highest moisture content of 10.82% while the least of 7.83% was obtained by Penicillium  citrinum – treated rice bran.  Ash content of rice bran was increased from 19.75% to 22.90% by Aspergillus niger. For the crude fat, Fusarium sp. 2treated rice bran recorded the highest crude fat of 4.86% while Fusarium sp 1 registered the highest crude fiber with 27.64%. All, except Aspergillus ochraceaus and Fusarium sp 1 were found non-cytotoxic at 6 and 12 hrs of incubation depicting their feasibility as safe and nutrient enriched substitute to animal feeds. 

Keywords ash – crude fat – crude fiber – cytotoxity ¬– moisture rice – bran – single cell protein
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Article Number 5
Title

Some new additions to black mildew fungi of North Western Himalayas, India.

Authors

Gautam AK, Avasthi S

Received 18 March 2016
Accepted 16 June 2016
Published Online 23 June 2016
Corresponding Author Ajay K Gautam – a2gautam2006@gmail.com
Abstract

Three black mildew fungi, namely Schiffnerula celastri, Sarcinella oreophila and Schiffnerula cryptostegiae were reported on Celastrus paniculatus, Carissa sp. and Cryptolepis buchanani respectively and are described and illustrated in detail in the present study. Although, these black mildews have previously been reported from various parts of India, there is no report from Himachal Pradesh and surrounding areas. Therefore, the present study contributes new records to the black mildew fungi, not only in the state, but also in the north western Himalaya

Keywords Black mildews – Himachal Pradesh – India – Schiffnerula – Sarcinella – taxonomy
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Article Number 6
Title

Wild edible mushrooms from high elevations in the Garhwal Himalaya-I

Authors

Bhatt RP, Singh U, Stephenson SL

Received 31 March 2016
Accepted 09 June 2016
Published Online 23 June 2016
Corresponding Author Upendra Singh – upenrana04@gmail.com
Abstract

Information is provided on 15 species of wild edible mushrooms collected at elevations of 2000−3500 masl in the Garhwal Himalaya of Northern India. Except for Morchella esculenta (‘Guchhi’), which is a member of the ascomycetes, all of the other macrofungi considered herein are basidiomycetes. The 15 species belong to 12 genera and 08 families and were collected from 08 different study sites in the Garhwal Himalaya.

Keywords Ascomycetes – Basidiomycetes – macrofungi − Northern India
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Article Number 7
Title

Endophytic fungal diversity from Cinchona calisaya based on phylogenetic analysis of the ITS ribosomal DNA sequence data

Authors

Hidayat I, Radiastuti N, Rahayu G, Achmadi SS, Okane I

Received 11 April 2016
Accepted 16 June 2016
Published Online 30 June 2016
Corresponding Author Iman Hidayat – imanhidayat@yahoo.com
Abstract

Cinchona calisaya (quina) is a medicinal plant native to southern Andes forest of South America. This plant and a some of its fungal endophytes have been known for their alkaloid activity against malarial diseases. However, information regarding fungal endophyte diversity within this plant is scarce. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out an endophyte diversity study on C. calisaya in order to reveal the entire fungal endophyte assemblage within this plant. The endophytes were analyzed using a culture‒dependent method, followed by molecular phylogenetic analysis based on complete nucleotide sequence data generated from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA region. Several common fungal endophytes genera were determined as follows: Diaporthe/Phomopsis, Glomerella/Colletotrichum, Guignardia/Phyllosticta, Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Several members of plant pathogenic and saprobic fungi such as Cercospora, Ilyonectria, Pyrigemmula, Neofusicoccum, Leptosphaerulina and Peyronellaea were also reported here as endophytes. Among the endophytes, species of Diaporthe (Diaporthaceae) were the most common fungal endophytes in the quina plant, followed by species of Colletotrichum (Glomerellaceae) and Fusarium (Nectriaceae). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence data revealed many distinct undetermined clades in the fungal endophyte assemblages, which indicates that many cryptic species are probably present within tissues of C. calisaya.

Keywords diversity – endophyte – fungi – phylogenetic – quina
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Article Number 8
Title

Glomus segmentatum, rediscovery of a rare epigeous sporocarpic fungus to Cuba

Authors

Furrazola E, Torres-Arias Y, Thoen D, Berbara RLL, Jobim K, Goto BT

Received 20 May 2016
Accepted 15 June 2016
Published Online 30 June 2016
Corresponding Author Eduardo Furrazola Gómez – eduardof@ecologia.cu
Abstract

Cuba has shown in several studies a high diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, related with its high plant endemism. During diversity studies of the epigeous mycota an rare sporocarpic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species was found in San Andrés, western Cuba associated to Quercus cubana in a holm-oak wood. The fungus identified as Glomus segmentatum forms large sporocarps (3.5 × 6 mm) over soil surface and 8–16 polyhedral segments interconnected by basal hypha. Its globose to subglobose glomerospores (55–)65(–82) µm have three spore wall layers: an outer (swl1) evanescent, hyaline up to 1 µm layer, a second laminate layer (swl2), dull white to yellowish white 3.6–7.5 µm thick and yellowish white 0.5–1.0 µm inner layer (swl3). Subtending hypha is hyaline to white, 7.5–16.8 µm at spore base, continuous with spore wall layers (swl1–swl2), 2.8–4 µm thick, at the point of attachment, from this point gradually thins up to 0.5 µm thick. This study provides additional taxonomic information of a rare fungus and represents a new occurrence data for Cuba and the second global record for the species.

Keywords Caribbean – diversity – Glomerales – morphology – taxonomy
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About CREAM Journal

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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